Java集合0.1

Map:
HashMap
HashTable
TreeMap
LinkedHashMap

HashMap

HashMap是基于哈希表实现的,每一个元素是一个key-value对,其内部通过单链表解决冲突问题,容量不足(超过了阀值)时,同样会自动增长。

HashMap是非线程安全的,只是用于单线程环境下,多线程环境下可以采用concurrent并发包下的concurrentHashMap。

HashMap 实现了Serializable接口,因此它支持序列化,实现了Cloneable接口,能被克隆。

HashMap源码剖析

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package java.util;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InvalidObjectException;
import java.io.Serializable;
import java.lang.reflect.ParameterizedType;
import java.lang.reflect.Type;
import java.util.function.BiConsumer;
import java.util.function.BiFunction;
import java.util.function.Consumer;
import java.util.function.Function;


public class HashMap<K,V> extends AbstractMap<K,V>
implements Map<K,V>, Cloneable, Serializable {

private static final long serialVersionUID = 362498820763181265L;

/**
* The default initial capacity - MUST be a power of two.
*/
static final int DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY = 1 << 4; // aka 16

/**
* The maximum capacity, used if a higher value is implicitly specified
* by either of the constructors with arguments.
* MUST be a power of two <= 1<<30.
*/
static final int MAXIMUM_CAPACITY = 1 << 30;

/**
* The load factor used when none specified in constructor.
*/
static final float DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR = 0.75f;

/**
* The bin count threshold for using a tree rather than list for a
* bin. Bins are converted to trees when adding an element to a
* bin with at least this many nodes. The value must be greater
* than 2 and should be at least 8 to mesh with assumptions in
* tree removal about conversion back to plain bins upon
* shrinkage.
*/
static final int TREEIFY_THRESHOLD = 8;

/**
* The bin count threshold for untreeifying a (split) bin during a
* resize operation. Should be less than TREEIFY_THRESHOLD, and at
* most 6 to mesh with shrinkage detection under removal.
*/
static final int UNTREEIFY_THRESHOLD = 6;

/**
* The smallest table capacity for which bins may be treeified.
* (Otherwise the table is resized if too many nodes in a bin.)
* Should be at least 4 * TREEIFY_THRESHOLD to avoid conflicts
* between resizing and treeification thresholds.
*/
static final int MIN_TREEIFY_CAPACITY = 64;

/**
* Basic hash bin node, used for most entries. (See below for
* TreeNode subclass, and in LinkedHashMap for its Entry subclass.)
*/
static class Node<K,V> implements Map.Entry<K,V> {
final int hash;
final K key;
V value;
Node<K,V> next;

Node(int hash, K key, V value, Node<K,V> next) {
this.hash = hash;
this.key = key;
this.value = value;
this.next = next;
}

public final K getKey() { return key; }
public final V getValue() { return value; }
public final String toString() { return key + "=" + value; }

public final int hashCode() {
return Objects.hashCode(key) ^ Objects.hashCode(value);
}

public final V setValue(V newValue) {
V oldValue = value;
value = newValue;
return oldValue;
}

public final boolean equals(Object o) {
if (o == this)
return true;
if (o instanceof Map.Entry) {
Map.Entry<?,?> e = (Map.Entry<?,?>)o;
if (Objects.equals(key, e.getKey()) &&
Objects.equals(value, e.getValue()))
return true;
}
return false;
}
}

/* ---------------- Static utilities -------------- */

/**
* Computes key.hashCode() and spreads (XORs) higher bits of hash
* to lower. Because the table uses power-of-two masking, sets of
* hashes that vary only in bits above the current mask will
* always collide. (Among known examples are sets of Float keys
* holding consecutive whole numbers in small tables.) So we
* apply a transform that spreads the impact of higher bits
* downward. There is a tradeoff between speed, utility, and
* quality of bit-spreading. Because many common sets of hashes
* are already reasonably distributed (so don't benefit from
* spreading), and because we use trees to handle large sets of
* collisions in bins, we just XOR some shifted bits in the
* cheapest possible way to reduce systematic lossage, as well as
* to incorporate impact of the highest bits that would otherwise
* never be used in index calculations because of table bounds.
*/
static final int hash(Object key) {
int h;
return (key == null) ? 0 : (h = key.hashCode()) ^ (h >>> 16);
}

/**
* Returns x's Class if it is of the form "class C implements
* Comparable<C>", else null.
*/
static Class<?> comparableClassFor(Object x) {
if (x instanceof Comparable) {
Class<?> c; Type[] ts, as; Type t; ParameterizedType p;
if ((c = x.getClass()) == String.class) // bypass checks
return c;
if ((ts = c.getGenericInterfaces()) != null) {
for (int i = 0; i < ts.length; ++i) {
if (((t = ts[i]) instanceof ParameterizedType) &&
((p = (ParameterizedType)t).getRawType() ==
Comparable.class) &&
(as = p.getActualTypeArguments()) != null &&
as.length == 1 && as[0] == c) // type arg is c
return c;
}
}
}
return null;
}

/**
* Returns k.compareTo(x) if x matches kc (k's screened comparable
* class), else 0.
*/
@SuppressWarnings({"rawtypes","unchecked"}) // for cast to Comparable
static int compareComparables(Class<?> kc, Object k, Object x) {
return (x == null || x.getClass() != kc ? 0 :
((Comparable)k).compareTo(x));
}

/**
* Returns a power of two size for the given target capacity.
*/
static final int tableSizeFor(int cap) {
int n = cap - 1;
n |= n >>> 1;
n |= n >>> 2;
n |= n >>> 4;
n |= n >>> 8;
n |= n >>> 16;
return (n < 0) ? 1 : (n >= MAXIMUM_CAPACITY) ? MAXIMUM_CAPACITY : n + 1;
}

/* ---------------- Fields -------------- */

/**
* The table, initialized on first use, and resized as
* necessary. When allocated, length is always a power of two.
* (We also tolerate length zero in some operations to allow
* bootstrapping mechanics that are currently not needed.)
*/
transient Node<K,V>[] table;

/**
* Holds cached entrySet(). Note that AbstractMap fields are used
* for keySet() and values().
*/
transient Set<Map.Entry<K,V>> entrySet;

/**
* The number of key-value mappings contained in this map.
*/
transient int size;

/**
* The number of times this HashMap has been structurally modified
* Structural modifications are those that change the number of mappings in
* the HashMap or otherwise modify its internal structure (e.g.,
* rehash). This field is used to make iterators on Collection-views of
* the HashMap fail-fast. (See ConcurrentModificationException).
*/
transient int modCount;

/**
* The next size value at which to resize (capacity * load factor).
*
* @serial
*/
// (The javadoc description is true upon serialization.
// Additionally, if the table array has not been allocated, this
// field holds the initial array capacity, or zero signifying
// DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY.)
int threshold;

/**
* The load factor for the hash table.
*
* @serial
*/
final float loadFactor;

/* ---------------- Public operations -------------- */

/**
* Constructs an empty <tt>HashMap</tt> with the specified initial
* capacity and load factor.
*
* @param initialCapacity the initial capacity
* @param loadFactor the load factor
* @throws IllegalArgumentException if the initial capacity is negative
* or the load factor is nonpositive
*/
public HashMap(int initialCapacity, float loadFactor) {
if (initialCapacity < 0)
throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal initial capacity: " +
initialCapacity);
if (initialCapacity > MAXIMUM_CAPACITY)
initialCapacity = MAXIMUM_CAPACITY;
if (loadFactor <= 0 || Float.isNaN(loadFactor))
throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal load factor: " +
loadFactor);
this.loadFactor = loadFactor;
this.threshold = tableSizeFor(initialCapacity);
}

/**
* Constructs an empty <tt>HashMap</tt> with the specified initial
* capacity and the default load factor (0.75).
*
* @param initialCapacity the initial capacity.
* @throws IllegalArgumentException if the initial capacity is negative.
*/
public HashMap(int initialCapacity) {
this(initialCapacity, DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR);
}

/**
* Constructs an empty <tt>HashMap</tt> with the default initial capacity
* (16) and the default load factor (0.75).
*/
public HashMap() {
this.loadFactor = DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR; // all other fields defaulted
}

/**
* Constructs a new <tt>HashMap</tt> with the same mappings as the
* specified <tt>Map</tt>. The <tt>HashMap</tt> is created with
* default load factor (0.75) and an initial capacity sufficient to
* hold the mappings in the specified <tt>Map</tt>.
*
* @param m the map whose mappings are to be placed in this map
* @throws NullPointerException if the specified map is null
*/
public HashMap(Map<? extends K, ? extends V> m) {
this.loadFactor = DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR;
putMapEntries(m, false);
}

/**
* Implements Map.putAll and Map constructor
*
* @param m the map
* @param evict false when initially constructing this map, else
* true (relayed to method afterNodeInsertion).
*/
final void putMapEntries(Map<? extends K, ? extends V> m, boolean evict) {
int s = m.size();
if (s > 0) {
if (table == null) { // pre-size
float ft = ((float)s / loadFactor) + 1.0F;
int t = ((ft < (float)MAXIMUM_CAPACITY) ?
(int)ft : MAXIMUM_CAPACITY);
if (t > threshold)
threshold = tableSizeFor(t);
}
else if (s > threshold)
resize();
for (Map.Entry<? extends K, ? extends V> e : m.entrySet()) {
K key = e.getKey();
V value = e.getValue();
putVal(hash(key), key, value, false, evict);
}
}
}

/**
* Returns the number of key-value mappings in this map.
*
* @return the number of key-value mappings in this map
*/
public int size() {
return size;
}

/**
* Returns <tt>true</tt> if this map contains no key-value mappings.
*
* @return <tt>true</tt> if this map contains no key-value mappings
*/
public boolean isEmpty() {
return size == 0;
}

/**
* Returns the value to which the specified key is mapped,
* or {@code null} if this map contains no mapping for the key.
*
* <p>More formally, if this map contains a mapping from a key
* {@code k} to a value {@code v} such that {@code (key==null ? k==null :
* key.equals(k))}, then this method returns {@code v}; otherwise
* it returns {@code null}. (There can be at most one such mapping.)
*
* <p>A return value of {@code null} does not <i>necessarily</i>
* indicate that the map contains no mapping for the key; it's also
* possible that the map explicitly maps the key to {@code null}.
* The {@link #containsKey containsKey} operation may be used to
* distinguish these two cases.
*
* @see #put(Object, Object)
*/
public V get(Object key) {
Node<K,V> e;
return (e = getNode(hash(key), key)) == null ? null : e.value;
}

/**
* Implements Map.get and related methods
*
* @param hash hash for key
* @param key the key
* @return the node, or null if none
*/
final Node<K,V> getNode(int hash, Object key) {
Node<K,V>[] tab; Node<K,V> first, e; int n; K k;
if ((tab = table) != null && (n = tab.length) > 0 &&
(first = tab[(n - 1) & hash]) != null) {
if (first.hash == hash && // always check first node
((k = first.key) == key || (key != null && key.equals(k))))
return first;
if ((e = first.next) != null) {
if (first instanceof TreeNode)
return ((TreeNode<K,V>)first).getTreeNode(hash, key);
do {
if (e.hash == hash &&
((k = e.key) == key || (key != null && key.equals(k))))
return e;
} while ((e = e.next) != null);
}
}
return null;
}

/**
* Returns <tt>true</tt> if this map contains a mapping for the
* specified key.
*
* @param key The key whose presence in this map is to be tested
* @return <tt>true</tt> if this map contains a mapping for the specified
* key.
*/
public boolean containsKey(Object key) {
return getNode(hash(key), key) != null;
}

/**
* Associates the specified value with the specified key in this map.
* If the map previously contained a mapping for the key, the old
* value is replaced.
*
* @param key key with which the specified value is to be associated
* @param value value to be associated with the specified key
* @return the previous value associated with <tt>key</tt>, or
* <tt>null</tt> if there was no mapping for <tt>key</tt>.
* (A <tt>null</tt> return can also indicate that the map
* previously associated <tt>null</tt> with <tt>key</tt>.)
*/
public V put(K key, V value) {
return putVal(hash(key), key, value, false, true);
}

/**
* Implements Map.put and related methods
*
* @param hash hash for key
* @param key the key
* @param value the value to put
* @param onlyIfAbsent if true, don't change existing value
* @param evict if false, the table is in creation mode.
* @return previous value, or null if none
*/
final V putVal(int hash, K key, V value, boolean onlyIfAbsent,
boolean evict) {
Node<K,V>[] tab; Node<K,V> p; int n, i;
if ((tab = table) == null || (n = tab.length) == 0)
n = (tab = resize()).length;
if ((p = tab[i = (n - 1) & hash]) == null)
tab[i] = newNode(hash, key, value, null);
else {
Node<K,V> e; K k;
if (p.hash == hash &&
((k = p.key) == key || (key != null && key.equals(k))))
e = p;
else if (p instanceof TreeNode)
e = ((TreeNode<K,V>)p).putTreeVal(this, tab, hash, key, value);
else {
for (int binCount = 0; ; ++binCount) {
if ((e = p.next) == null) {
p.next = newNode(hash, key, value, null);
if (binCount >= TREEIFY_THRESHOLD - 1) // -1 for 1st
treeifyBin(tab, hash);
break;
}
if (e.hash == hash &&
((k = e.key) == key || (key != null && key.equals(k))))
break;
p = e;
}
}
if (e != null) { // existing mapping for key
V oldValue = e.value;
if (!onlyIfAbsent || oldValue == null)
e.value = value;
afterNodeAccess(e);
return oldValue;
}
}
++modCount;
if (++size > threshold)
resize();
afterNodeInsertion(evict);
return null;
}

/**
* Initializes or doubles table size. If null, allocates in
* accord with initial capacity target held in field threshold.
* Otherwise, because we are using power-of-two expansion, the
* elements from each bin must either stay at same index, or move
* with a power of two offset in the new table.
*
* @return the table
*/
final Node<K,V>[] resize() {
Node<K,V>[] oldTab = table;
int oldCap = (oldTab == null) ? 0 : oldTab.length;
int oldThr = threshold;
int newCap, newThr = 0;
if (oldCap > 0) {
if (oldCap >= MAXIMUM_CAPACITY) {
threshold = Integer.MAX_VALUE;
return oldTab;
}
else if ((newCap = oldCap << 1) < MAXIMUM_CAPACITY &&
oldCap >= DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY)
newThr = oldThr << 1; // double threshold
}
else if (oldThr > 0) // initial capacity was placed in threshold
newCap = oldThr;
else { // zero initial threshold signifies using defaults
newCap = DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY;
newThr = (int)(DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR * DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY);
}
if (newThr == 0) {
float ft = (float)newCap * loadFactor;
newThr = (newCap < MAXIMUM_CAPACITY && ft < (float)MAXIMUM_CAPACITY ?
(int)ft : Integer.MAX_VALUE);
}
threshold = newThr;
@SuppressWarnings({"rawtypes","unchecked"})
Node<K,V>[] newTab = (Node<K,V>[])new Node[newCap];
table = newTab;
if (oldTab != null) {
for (int j = 0; j < oldCap; ++j) {
Node<K,V> e;
if ((e = oldTab[j]) != null) {
oldTab[j] = null;
if (e.next == null)
newTab[e.hash & (newCap - 1)] = e;
else if (e instanceof TreeNode)
((TreeNode<K,V>)e).split(this, newTab, j, oldCap);
else { // preserve order
Node<K,V> loHead = null, loTail = null;
Node<K,V> hiHead = null, hiTail = null;
Node<K,V> next;
do {
next = e.next;
if ((e.hash & oldCap) == 0) {
if (loTail == null)
loHead = e;
else
loTail.next = e;
loTail = e;
}
else {
if (hiTail == null)
hiHead = e;
else
hiTail.next = e;
hiTail = e;
}
} while ((e = next) != null);
if (loTail != null) {
loTail.next = null;
newTab[j] = loHead;
}
if (hiTail != null) {
hiTail.next = null;
newTab[j + oldCap] = hiHead;
}
}
}
}
}
return newTab;
}

/**
* Replaces all linked nodes in bin at index for given hash unless
* table is too small, in which case resizes instead.
*/
final void treeifyBin(Node<K,V>[] tab, int hash) {
int n, index; Node<K,V> e;
if (tab == null || (n = tab.length) < MIN_TREEIFY_CAPACITY)
resize();
else if ((e = tab[index = (n - 1) & hash]) != null) {
TreeNode<K,V> hd = null, tl = null;
do {
TreeNode<K,V> p = replacementTreeNode(e, null);
if (tl == null)
hd = p;
else {
p.prev = tl;
tl.next = p;
}
tl = p;
} while ((e = e.next) != null);
if ((tab[index] = hd) != null)
hd.treeify(tab);
}
}

/**
* Copies all of the mappings from the specified map to this map.
* These mappings will replace any mappings that this map had for
* any of the keys currently in the specified map.
*
* @param m mappings to be stored in this map
* @throws NullPointerException if the specified map is null
*/
public void putAll(Map<? extends K, ? extends V> m) {
putMapEntries(m, true);
}

/**
* Removes the mapping for the specified key from this map if present.
*
* @param key key whose mapping is to be removed from the map
* @return the previous value associated with <tt>key</tt>, or
* <tt>null</tt> if there was no mapping for <tt>key</tt>.
* (A <tt>null</tt> return can also indicate that the map
* previously associated <tt>null</tt> with <tt>key</tt>.)
*/
public V remove(Object key) {
Node<K,V> e;
return (e = removeNode(hash(key), key, null, false, true)) == null ?
null : e.value;
}

/**
* Implements Map.remove and related methods
*
* @param hash hash for key
* @param key the key
* @param value the value to match if matchValue, else ignored
* @param matchValue if true only remove if value is equal
* @param movable if false do not move other nodes while removing
* @return the node, or null if none
*/
final Node<K,V> removeNode(int hash, Object key, Object value,
boolean matchValue, boolean movable) {
Node<K,V>[] tab; Node<K,V> p; int n, index;
if ((tab = table) != null && (n = tab.length) > 0 &&
(p = tab[index = (n - 1) & hash]) != null) {
Node<K,V> node = null, e; K k; V v;
if (p.hash == hash &&
((k = p.key) == key || (key != null && key.equals(k))))
node = p;
else if ((e = p.next) != null) {
if (p instanceof TreeNode)
node = ((TreeNode<K,V>)p).getTreeNode(hash, key);
else {
do {
if (e.hash == hash &&
((k = e.key) == key ||
(key != null && key.equals(k)))) {
node = e;
break;
}
p = e;
} while ((e = e.next) != null);
}
}
if (node != null && (!matchValue || (v = node.value) == value ||
(value != null && value.equals(v)))) {
if (node instanceof TreeNode)
((TreeNode<K,V>)node).removeTreeNode(this, tab, movable);
else if (node == p)
tab[index] = node.next;
else
p.next = node.next;
++modCount;
--size;
afterNodeRemoval(node);
return node;
}
}
return null;
}

/**
* Removes all of the mappings from this map.
* The map will be empty after this call returns.
*/
public void clear() {
Node<K,V>[] tab;
modCount++;
if ((tab = table) != null && size > 0) {
size = 0;
for (int i = 0; i < tab.length; ++i)
tab[i] = null;
}
}

/**
* Returns <tt>true</tt> if this map maps one or more keys to the
* specified value.
*
* @param value value whose presence in this map is to be tested
* @return <tt>true</tt> if this map maps one or more keys to the
* specified value
*/
public boolean containsValue(Object value) {
Node<K,V>[] tab; V v;
if ((tab = table) != null && size > 0) {
for (int i = 0; i < tab.length; ++i) {
for (Node<K,V> e = tab[i]; e != null; e = e.next) {
if ((v = e.value) == value ||
(value != null && value.equals(v)))
return true;
}
}
}
return false;
}

/**
* Returns a {@link Set} view of the keys contained in this map.
* The set is backed by the map, so changes to the map are
* reflected in the set, and vice-versa. If the map is modified
* while an iteration over the set is in progress (except through
* the iterator's own <tt>remove</tt> operation), the results of
* the iteration are undefined. The set supports element removal,
* which removes the corresponding mapping from the map, via the
* <tt>Iterator.remove</tt>, <tt>Set.remove</tt>,
* <tt>removeAll</tt>, <tt>retainAll</tt>, and <tt>clear</tt>
* operations. It does not support the <tt>add</tt> or <tt>addAll</tt>
* operations.
*
* @return a set view of the keys contained in this map
*/
public Set<K> keySet() {
Set<K> ks = keySet;
if (ks == null) {
ks = new KeySet();
keySet = ks;
}
return ks;
}

final class KeySet extends AbstractSet<K> {
public final int size() { return size; }
public final void clear() { HashMap.this.clear(); }
public final Iterator<K> iterator() { return new KeyIterator(); }
public final boolean contains(Object o) { return containsKey(o); }
public final boolean remove(Object key) {
return removeNode(hash(key), key, null, false, true) != null;
}
public final Spliterator<K> spliterator() {
return new KeySpliterator<>(HashMap.this, 0, -1, 0, 0);
}
public final void forEach(Consumer<? super K> action) {
Node<K,V>[] tab;
if (action == null)
throw new NullPointerException();
if (size > 0 && (tab = table) != null) {
int mc = modCount;
for (int i = 0; i < tab.length; ++i) {
for (Node<K,V> e = tab[i]; e != null; e = e.next)
action.accept(e.key);
}
if (modCount != mc)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}
}

/**
* Returns a {@link Collection} view of the values contained in this map.
* The collection is backed by the map, so changes to the map are
* reflected in the collection, and vice-versa. If the map is
* modified while an iteration over the collection is in progress
* (except through the iterator's own <tt>remove</tt> operation),
* the results of the iteration are undefined. The collection
* supports element removal, which removes the corresponding
* mapping from the map, via the <tt>Iterator.remove</tt>,
* <tt>Collection.remove</tt>, <tt>removeAll</tt>,
* <tt>retainAll</tt> and <tt>clear</tt> operations. It does not
* support the <tt>add</tt> or <tt>addAll</tt> operations.
*
* @return a view of the values contained in this map
*/
public Collection<V> values() {
Collection<V> vs = values;
if (vs == null) {
vs = new Values();
values = vs;
}
return vs;
}

final class Values extends AbstractCollection<V> {
public final int size() { return size; }
public final void clear() { HashMap.this.clear(); }
public final Iterator<V> iterator() { return new ValueIterator(); }
public final boolean contains(Object o) { return containsValue(o); }
public final Spliterator<V> spliterator() {
return new ValueSpliterator<>(HashMap.this, 0, -1, 0, 0);
}
public final void forEach(Consumer<? super V> action) {
Node<K,V>[] tab;
if (action == null)
throw new NullPointerException();
if (size > 0 && (tab = table) != null) {
int mc = modCount;
for (int i = 0; i < tab.length; ++i) {
for (Node<K,V> e = tab[i]; e != null; e = e.next)
action.accept(e.value);
}
if (modCount != mc)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}
}

/**
* Returns a {@link Set} view of the mappings contained in this map.
* The set is backed by the map, so changes to the map are
* reflected in the set, and vice-versa. If the map is modified
* while an iteration over the set is in progress (except through
* the iterator's own <tt>remove</tt> operation, or through the
* <tt>setValue</tt> operation on a map entry returned by the
* iterator) the results of the iteration are undefined. The set
* supports element removal, which removes the corresponding
* mapping from the map, via the <tt>Iterator.remove</tt>,
* <tt>Set.remove</tt>, <tt>removeAll</tt>, <tt>retainAll</tt> and
* <tt>clear</tt> operations. It does not support the
* <tt>add</tt> or <tt>addAll</tt> operations.
*
* @return a set view of the mappings contained in this map
*/
public Set<Map.Entry<K,V>> entrySet() {
Set<Map.Entry<K,V>> es;
return (es = entrySet) == null ? (entrySet = new EntrySet()) : es;
}

final class EntrySet extends AbstractSet<Map.Entry<K,V>> {
public final int size() { return size; }
public final void clear() { HashMap.this.clear(); }
public final Iterator<Map.Entry<K,V>> iterator() {
return new EntryIterator();
}
public final boolean contains(Object o) {
if (!(o instanceof Map.Entry))
return false;
Map.Entry<?,?> e = (Map.Entry<?,?>) o;
Object key = e.getKey();
Node<K,V> candidate = getNode(hash(key), key);
return candidate != null && candidate.equals(e);
}
public final boolean remove(Object o) {
if (o instanceof Map.Entry) {
Map.Entry<?,?> e = (Map.Entry<?,?>) o;
Object key = e.getKey();
Object value = e.getValue();
return removeNode(hash(key), key, value, true, true) != null;
}
return false;
}
public final Spliterator<Map.Entry<K,V>> spliterator() {
return new EntrySpliterator<>(HashMap.this, 0, -1, 0, 0);
}
public final void forEach(Consumer<? super Map.Entry<K,V>> action) {
Node<K,V>[] tab;
if (action == null)
throw new NullPointerException();
if (size > 0 && (tab = table) != null) {
int mc = modCount;
for (int i = 0; i < tab.length; ++i) {
for (Node<K,V> e = tab[i]; e != null; e = e.next)
action.accept(e);
}
if (modCount != mc)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}
}

// Overrides of JDK8 Map extension methods

@Override
public V getOrDefault(Object key, V defaultValue) {
Node<K,V> e;
return (e = getNode(hash(key), key)) == null ? defaultValue : e.value;
}

@Override
public V putIfAbsent(K key, V value) {
return putVal(hash(key), key, value, true, true);
}

@Override
public boolean remove(Object key, Object value) {
return removeNode(hash(key), key, value, true, true) != null;
}

@Override
public boolean replace(K key, V oldValue, V newValue) {
Node<K,V> e; V v;
if ((e = getNode(hash(key), key)) != null &&
((v = e.value) == oldValue || (v != null && v.equals(oldValue)))) {
e.value = newValue;
afterNodeAccess(e);
return true;
}
return false;
}

@Override
public V replace(K key, V value) {
Node<K,V> e;
if ((e = getNode(hash(key), key)) != null) {
V oldValue = e.value;
e.value = value;
afterNodeAccess(e);
return oldValue;
}
return null;
}

@Override
public V computeIfAbsent(K key,
Function<? super K, ? extends V> mappingFunction) {
if (mappingFunction == null)
throw new NullPointerException();
int hash = hash(key);
Node<K,V>[] tab; Node<K,V> first; int n, i;
int binCount = 0;
TreeNode<K,V> t = null;
Node<K,V> old = null;
if (size > threshold || (tab = table) == null ||
(n = tab.length) == 0)
n = (tab = resize()).length;
if ((first = tab[i = (n - 1) & hash]) != null) {
if (first instanceof TreeNode)
old = (t = (TreeNode<K,V>)first).getTreeNode(hash, key);
else {
Node<K,V> e = first; K k;
do {
if (e.hash == hash &&
((k = e.key) == key || (key != null && key.equals(k)))) {
old = e;
break;
}
++binCount;
} while ((e = e.next) != null);
}
V oldValue;
if (old != null && (oldValue = old.value) != null) {
afterNodeAccess(old);
return oldValue;
}
}
V v = mappingFunction.apply(key);
if (v == null) {
return null;
} else if (old != null) {
old.value = v;
afterNodeAccess(old);
return v;
}
else if (t != null)
t.putTreeVal(this, tab, hash, key, v);
else {
tab[i] = newNode(hash, key, v, first);
if (binCount >= TREEIFY_THRESHOLD - 1)
treeifyBin(tab, hash);
}
++modCount;
++size;
afterNodeInsertion(true);
return v;
}

public V computeIfPresent(K key,
BiFunction<? super K, ? super V, ? extends V> remappingFunction) {
if (remappingFunction == null)
throw new NullPointerException();
Node<K,V> e; V oldValue;
int hash = hash(key);
if ((e = getNode(hash, key)) != null &&
(oldValue = e.value) != null) {
V v = remappingFunction.apply(key, oldValue);
if (v != null) {
e.value = v;
afterNodeAccess(e);
return v;
}
else
removeNode(hash, key, null, false, true);
}
return null;
}

@Override
public V compute(K key,
BiFunction<? super K, ? super V, ? extends V> remappingFunction) {
if (remappingFunction == null)
throw new NullPointerException();
int hash = hash(key);
Node<K,V>[] tab; Node<K,V> first; int n, i;
int binCount = 0;
TreeNode<K,V> t = null;
Node<K,V> old = null;
if (size > threshold || (tab = table) == null ||
(n = tab.length) == 0)
n = (tab = resize()).length;
if ((first = tab[i = (n - 1) & hash]) != null) {
if (first instanceof TreeNode)
old = (t = (TreeNode<K,V>)first).getTreeNode(hash, key);
else {
Node<K,V> e = first; K k;
do {
if (e.hash == hash &&
((k = e.key) == key || (key != null && key.equals(k)))) {
old = e;
break;
}
++binCount;
} while ((e = e.next) != null);
}
}
V oldValue = (old == null) ? null : old.value;
V v = remappingFunction.apply(key, oldValue);
if (old != null) {
if (v != null) {
old.value = v;
afterNodeAccess(old);
}
else
removeNode(hash, key, null, false, true);
}
else if (v != null) {
if (t != null)
t.putTreeVal(this, tab, hash, key, v);
else {
tab[i] = newNode(hash, key, v, first);
if (binCount >= TREEIFY_THRESHOLD - 1)
treeifyBin(tab, hash);
}
++modCount;
++size;
afterNodeInsertion(true);
}
return v;
}

@Override
public V merge(K key, V value,
BiFunction<? super V, ? super V, ? extends V> remappingFunction) {
if (value == null)
throw new NullPointerException();
if (remappingFunction == null)
throw new NullPointerException();
int hash = hash(key);
Node<K,V>[] tab; Node<K,V> first; int n, i;
int binCount = 0;
TreeNode<K,V> t = null;
Node<K,V> old = null;
if (size > threshold || (tab = table) == null ||
(n = tab.length) == 0)
n = (tab = resize()).length;
if ((first = tab[i = (n - 1) & hash]) != null) {
if (first instanceof TreeNode)
old = (t = (TreeNode<K,V>)first).getTreeNode(hash, key);
else {
Node<K,V> e = first; K k;
do {
if (e.hash == hash &&
((k = e.key) == key || (key != null && key.equals(k)))) {
old = e;
break;
}
++binCount;
} while ((e = e.next) != null);
}
}
if (old != null) {
V v;
if (old.value != null)
v = remappingFunction.apply(old.value, value);
else
v = value;
if (v != null) {
old.value = v;
afterNodeAccess(old);
}
else
removeNode(hash, key, null, false, true);
return v;
}
if (value != null) {
if (t != null)
t.putTreeVal(this, tab, hash, key, value);
else {
tab[i] = newNode(hash, key, value, first);
if (binCount >= TREEIFY_THRESHOLD - 1)
treeifyBin(tab, hash);
}
++modCount;
++size;
afterNodeInsertion(true);
}
return value;
}

@Override
public void forEach(BiConsumer<? super K, ? super V> action) {
Node<K,V>[] tab;
if (action == null)
throw new NullPointerException();
if (size > 0 && (tab = table) != null) {
int mc = modCount;
for (int i = 0; i < tab.length; ++i) {
for (Node<K,V> e = tab[i]; e != null; e = e.next)
action.accept(e.key, e.value);
}
if (modCount != mc)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}

@Override
public void replaceAll(BiFunction<? super K, ? super V, ? extends V> function) {
Node<K,V>[] tab;
if (function == null)
throw new NullPointerException();
if (size > 0 && (tab = table) != null) {
int mc = modCount;
for (int i = 0; i < tab.length; ++i) {
for (Node<K,V> e = tab[i]; e != null; e = e.next) {
e.value = function.apply(e.key, e.value);
}
}
if (modCount != mc)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}

/* ------------------------------------------------------------ */
// Cloning and serialization

/**
* Returns a shallow copy of this <tt>HashMap</tt> instance: the keys and
* values themselves are not cloned.
*
* @return a shallow copy of this map
*/
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
@Override
public Object clone() {
HashMap<K,V> result;
try {
result = (HashMap<K,V>)super.clone();
} catch (CloneNotSupportedException e) {
// this shouldn't happen, since we are Cloneable
throw new InternalError(e);
}
result.reinitialize();
result.putMapEntries(this, false);
return result;
}

// These methods are also used when serializing HashSets
final float loadFactor() { return loadFactor; }
final int capacity() {
return (table != null) ? table.length :
(threshold > 0) ? threshold :
DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY;
}

/**
* Save the state of the <tt>HashMap</tt> instance to a stream (i.e.,
* serialize it).
*
* @serialData The <i>capacity</i> of the HashMap (the length of the
* bucket array) is emitted (int), followed by the
* <i>size</i> (an int, the number of key-value
* mappings), followed by the key (Object) and value (Object)
* for each key-value mapping. The key-value mappings are
* emitted in no particular order.
*/
private void writeObject(java.io.ObjectOutputStream s)
throws IOException {
int buckets = capacity();
// Write out the threshold, loadfactor, and any hidden stuff
s.defaultWriteObject();
s.writeInt(buckets);
s.writeInt(size);
internalWriteEntries(s);
}

/**
* Reconstitute the {@code HashMap} instance from a stream (i.e.,
* deserialize it).
*/
private void readObject(java.io.ObjectInputStream s)
throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException {
// Read in the threshold (ignored), loadfactor, and any hidden stuff
s.defaultReadObject();
reinitialize();
if (loadFactor <= 0 || Float.isNaN(loadFactor))
throw new InvalidObjectException("Illegal load factor: " +
loadFactor);
s.readInt(); // Read and ignore number of buckets
int mappings = s.readInt(); // Read number of mappings (size)
if (mappings < 0)
throw new InvalidObjectException("Illegal mappings count: " +
mappings);
else if (mappings > 0) { // (if zero, use defaults)
// Size the table using given load factor only if within
// range of 0.25...4.0
float lf = Math.min(Math.max(0.25f, loadFactor), 4.0f);
float fc = (float)mappings / lf + 1.0f;
int cap = ((fc < DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY) ?
DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY :
(fc >= MAXIMUM_CAPACITY) ?
MAXIMUM_CAPACITY :
tableSizeFor((int)fc));
float ft = (float)cap * lf;
threshold = ((cap < MAXIMUM_CAPACITY && ft < MAXIMUM_CAPACITY) ?
(int)ft : Integer.MAX_VALUE);
@SuppressWarnings({"rawtypes","unchecked"})
Node<K,V>[] tab = (Node<K,V>[])new Node[cap];
table = tab;

// Read the keys and values, and put the mappings in the HashMap
for (int i = 0; i < mappings; i++) {
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
K key = (K) s.readObject();
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
V value = (V) s.readObject();
putVal(hash(key), key, value, false, false);
}
}
}

/* ------------------------------------------------------------ */
// iterators

abstract class HashIterator {
Node<K,V> next; // next entry to return
Node<K,V> current; // current entry
int expectedModCount; // for fast-fail
int index; // current slot

HashIterator() {
expectedModCount = modCount;
Node<K,V>[] t = table;
current = next = null;
index = 0;
if (t != null && size > 0) { // advance to first entry
do {} while (index < t.length && (next = t[index++]) == null);
}
}

public final boolean hasNext() {
return next != null;
}

final Node<K,V> nextNode() {
Node<K,V>[] t;
Node<K,V> e = next;
if (modCount != expectedModCount)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
if (e == null)
throw new NoSuchElementException();
if ((next = (current = e).next) == null && (t = table) != null) {
do {} while (index < t.length && (next = t[index++]) == null);
}
return e;
}

public final void remove() {
Node<K,V> p = current;
if (p == null)
throw new IllegalStateException();
if (modCount != expectedModCount)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
current = null;
K key = p.key;
removeNode(hash(key), key, null, false, false);
expectedModCount = modCount;
}
}

final class KeyIterator extends HashIterator
implements Iterator<K> {
public final K next() { return nextNode().key; }
}

final class ValueIterator extends HashIterator
implements Iterator<V> {
public final V next() { return nextNode().value; }
}

final class EntryIterator extends HashIterator
implements Iterator<Map.Entry<K,V>> {
public final Map.Entry<K,V> next() { return nextNode(); }
}

/* ------------------------------------------------------------ */
// spliterators

static class HashMapSpliterator<K,V> {
final HashMap<K,V> map;
Node<K,V> current; // current node
int index; // current index, modified on advance/split
int fence; // one past last index
int est; // size estimate
int expectedModCount; // for comodification checks

HashMapSpliterator(HashMap<K,V> m, int origin,
int fence, int est,
int expectedModCount) {
this.map = m;
this.index = origin;
this.fence = fence;
this.est = est;
this.expectedModCount = expectedModCount;
}

final int getFence() { // initialize fence and size on first use
int hi;
if ((hi = fence) < 0) {
HashMap<K,V> m = map;
est = m.size;
expectedModCount = m.modCount;
Node<K,V>[] tab = m.table;
hi = fence = (tab == null) ? 0 : tab.length;
}
return hi;
}

public final long estimateSize() {
getFence(); // force init
return (long) est;
}
}

static final class KeySpliterator<K,V>
extends HashMapSpliterator<K,V>
implements Spliterator<K> {
KeySpliterator(HashMap<K,V> m, int origin, int fence, int est,
int expectedModCount) {
super(m, origin, fence, est, expectedModCount);
}

public KeySpliterator<K,V> trySplit() {
int hi = getFence(), lo = index, mid = (lo + hi) >>> 1;
return (lo >= mid || current != null) ? null :
new KeySpliterator<>(map, lo, index = mid, est >>>= 1,
expectedModCount);
}

public void forEachRemaining(Consumer<? super K> action) {
int i, hi, mc;
if (action == null)
throw new NullPointerException();
HashMap<K,V> m = map;
Node<K,V>[] tab = m.table;
if ((hi = fence) < 0) {
mc = expectedModCount = m.modCount;
hi = fence = (tab == null) ? 0 : tab.length;
}
else
mc = expectedModCount;
if (tab != null && tab.length >= hi &&
(i = index) >= 0 && (i < (index = hi) || current != null)) {
Node<K,V> p = current;
current = null;
do {
if (p == null)
p = tab[i++];
else {
action.accept(p.key);
p = p.next;
}
} while (p != null || i < hi);
if (m.modCount != mc)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}

public boolean tryAdvance(Consumer<? super K> action) {
int hi;
if (action == null)
throw new NullPointerException();
Node<K,V>[] tab = map.table;
if (tab != null && tab.length >= (hi = getFence()) && index >= 0) {
while (current != null || index < hi) {
if (current == null)
current = tab[index++];
else {
K k = current.key;
current = current.next;
action.accept(k);
if (map.modCount != expectedModCount)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
return true;
}
}
}
return false;
}

public int characteristics() {
return (fence < 0 || est == map.size ? Spliterator.SIZED : 0) |
Spliterator.DISTINCT;
}
}

static final class ValueSpliterator<K,V>
extends HashMapSpliterator<K,V>
implements Spliterator<V> {
ValueSpliterator(HashMap<K,V> m, int origin, int fence, int est,
int expectedModCount) {
super(m, origin, fence, est, expectedModCount);
}

public ValueSpliterator<K,V> trySplit() {
int hi = getFence(), lo = index, mid = (lo + hi) >>> 1;
return (lo >= mid || current != null) ? null :
new ValueSpliterator<>(map, lo, index = mid, est >>>= 1,
expectedModCount);
}

public void forEachRemaining(Consumer<? super V> action) {
int i, hi, mc;
if (action == null)
throw new NullPointerException();
HashMap<K,V> m = map;
Node<K,V>[] tab = m.table;
if ((hi = fence) < 0) {
mc = expectedModCount = m.modCount;
hi = fence = (tab == null) ? 0 : tab.length;
}
else
mc = expectedModCount;
if (tab != null && tab.length >= hi &&
(i = index) >= 0 && (i < (index = hi) || current != null)) {
Node<K,V> p = current;
current = null;
do {
if (p == null)
p = tab[i++];
else {
action.accept(p.value);
p = p.next;
}
} while (p != null || i < hi);
if (m.modCount != mc)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}

public boolean tryAdvance(Consumer<? super V> action) {
int hi;
if (action == null)
throw new NullPointerException();
Node<K,V>[] tab = map.table;
if (tab != null && tab.length >= (hi = getFence()) && index >= 0) {
while (current != null || index < hi) {
if (current == null)
current = tab[index++];
else {
V v = current.value;
current = current.next;
action.accept(v);
if (map.modCount != expectedModCount)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
return true;
}
}
}
return false;
}

public int characteristics() {
return (fence < 0 || est == map.size ? Spliterator.SIZED : 0);
}
}

static final class EntrySpliterator<K,V>
extends HashMapSpliterator<K,V>
implements Spliterator<Map.Entry<K,V>> {
EntrySpliterator(HashMap<K,V> m, int origin, int fence, int est,
int expectedModCount) {
super(m, origin, fence, est, expectedModCount);
}

public EntrySpliterator<K,V> trySplit() {
int hi = getFence(), lo = index, mid = (lo + hi) >>> 1;
return (lo >= mid || current != null) ? null :
new EntrySpliterator<>(map, lo, index = mid, est >>>= 1,
expectedModCount);
}

public void forEachRemaining(Consumer<? super Map.Entry<K,V>> action) {
int i, hi, mc;
if (action == null)
throw new NullPointerException();
HashMap<K,V> m = map;
Node<K,V>[] tab = m.table;
if ((hi = fence) < 0) {
mc = expectedModCount = m.modCount;
hi = fence = (tab == null) ? 0 : tab.length;
}
else
mc = expectedModCount;
if (tab != null && tab.length >= hi &&
(i = index) >= 0 && (i < (index = hi) || current != null)) {
Node<K,V> p = current;
current = null;
do {
if (p == null)
p = tab[i++];
else {
action.accept(p);
p = p.next;
}
} while (p != null || i < hi);
if (m.modCount != mc)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}

public boolean tryAdvance(Consumer<? super Map.Entry<K,V>> action) {
int hi;
if (action == null)
throw new NullPointerException();
Node<K,V>[] tab = map.table;
if (tab != null && tab.length >= (hi = getFence()) && index >= 0) {
while (current != null || index < hi) {
if (current == null)
current = tab[index++];
else {
Node<K,V> e = current;
current = current.next;
action.accept(e);
if (map.modCount != expectedModCount)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
return true;
}
}
}
return false;
}

public int characteristics() {
return (fence < 0 || est == map.size ? Spliterator.SIZED : 0) |
Spliterator.DISTINCT;
}
}

/* ------------------------------------------------------------ */
// LinkedHashMap support


/*
* The following package-protected methods are designed to be
* overridden by LinkedHashMap, but not by any other subclass.
* Nearly all other internal methods are also package-protected
* but are declared final, so can be used by LinkedHashMap, view
* classes, and HashSet.
*/

// Create a regular (non-tree) node
Node<K,V> newNode(int hash, K key, V value, Node<K,V> next) {
return new Node<>(hash, key, value, next);
}

// For conversion from TreeNodes to plain nodes
Node<K,V> replacementNode(Node<K,V> p, Node<K,V> next) {
return new Node<>(p.hash, p.key, p.value, next);
}

// Create a tree bin node
TreeNode<K,V> newTreeNode(int hash, K key, V value, Node<K,V> next) {
return new TreeNode<>(hash, key, value, next);
}

// For treeifyBin
TreeNode<K,V> replacementTreeNode(Node<K,V> p, Node<K,V> next) {
return new TreeNode<>(p.hash, p.key, p.value, next);
}

/**
* Reset to initial default state. Called by clone and readObject.
*/
void reinitialize() {
table = null;
entrySet = null;
keySet = null;
values = null;
modCount = 0;
threshold = 0;
size = 0;
}

// Callbacks to allow LinkedHashMap post-actions
void afterNodeAccess(Node<K,V> p) { }
void afterNodeInsertion(boolean evict) { }
void afterNodeRemoval(Node<K,V> p) { }

// Called only from writeObject, to ensure compatible ordering.
void internalWriteEntries(java.io.ObjectOutputStream s) throws IOException {
Node<K,V>[] tab;
if (size > 0 && (tab = table) != null) {
for (int i = 0; i < tab.length; ++i) {
for (Node<K,V> e = tab[i]; e != null; e = e.next) {
s.writeObject(e.key);
s.writeObject(e.value);
}
}
}
}

/* ------------------------------------------------------------ */
// Tree bins

/**
* Entry for Tree bins. Extends LinkedHashMap.Entry (which in turn
* extends Node) so can be used as extension of either regular or
* linked node.
*/
static final class TreeNode<K,V> extends LinkedHashMap.Entry<K,V> {
TreeNode<K,V> parent; // red-black tree links
TreeNode<K,V> left;
TreeNode<K,V> right;
TreeNode<K,V> prev; // needed to unlink next upon deletion
boolean red;
TreeNode(int hash, K key, V val, Node<K,V> next) {
super(hash, key, val, next);
}

/**
* Returns root of tree containing this node.
*/
final TreeNode<K,V> root() {
for (TreeNode<K,V> r = this, p;;) {
if ((p = r.parent) == null)
return r;
r = p;
}
}

/**
* Ensures that the given root is the first node of its bin.
*/
static <K,V> void moveRootToFront(Node<K,V>[] tab, TreeNode<K,V> root) {
int n;
if (root != null && tab != null && (n = tab.length) > 0) {
int index = (n - 1) & root.hash;
TreeNode<K,V> first = (TreeNode<K,V>)tab[index];
if (root != first) {
Node<K,V> rn;
tab[index] = root;
TreeNode<K,V> rp = root.prev;
if ((rn = root.next) != null)
((TreeNode<K,V>)rn).prev = rp;
if (rp != null)
rp.next = rn;
if (first != null)
first.prev = root;
root.next = first;
root.prev = null;
}
assert checkInvariants(root);
}
}

/**
* Finds the node starting at root p with the given hash and key.
* The kc argument caches comparableClassFor(key) upon first use
* comparing keys.
*/
final TreeNode<K,V> find(int h, Object k, Class<?> kc) {
TreeNode<K,V> p = this;
do {
int ph, dir; K pk;
TreeNode<K,V> pl = p.left, pr = p.right, q;
if ((ph = p.hash) > h)
p = pl;
else if (ph < h)
p = pr;
else if ((pk = p.key) == k || (k != null && k.equals(pk)))
return p;
else if (pl == null)
p = pr;
else if (pr == null)
p = pl;
else if ((kc != null ||
(kc = comparableClassFor(k)) != null) &&
(dir = compareComparables(kc, k, pk)) != 0)
p = (dir < 0) ? pl : pr;
else if ((q = pr.find(h, k, kc)) != null)
return q;
else
p = pl;
} while (p != null);
return null;
}

/**
* Calls find for root node.
*/
final TreeNode<K,V> getTreeNode(int h, Object k) {
return ((parent != null) ? root() : this).find(h, k, null);
}

/**
* Tie-breaking utility for ordering insertions when equal
* hashCodes and non-comparable. We don't require a total
* order, just a consistent insertion rule to maintain
* equivalence across rebalancings. Tie-breaking further than
* necessary simplifies testing a bit.
*/
static int tieBreakOrder(Object a, Object b) {
int d;
if (a == null || b == null ||
(d = a.getClass().getName().
compareTo(b.getClass().getName())) == 0)
d = (System.identityHashCode(a) <= System.identityHashCode(b) ?
-1 : 1);
return d;
}

/**
* Forms tree of the nodes linked from this node.
* @return root of tree
*/
final void treeify(Node<K,V>[] tab) {
TreeNode<K,V> root = null;
for (TreeNode<K,V> x = this, next; x != null; x = next) {
next = (TreeNode<K,V>)x.next;
x.left = x.right = null;
if (root == null) {
x.parent = null;
x.red = false;
root = x;
}
else {
K k = x.key;
int h = x.hash;
Class<?> kc = null;
for (TreeNode<K,V> p = root;;) {
int dir, ph;
K pk = p.key;
if ((ph = p.hash) > h)
dir = -1;
else if (ph < h)
dir = 1;
else if ((kc == null &&
(kc = comparableClassFor(k)) == null) ||
(dir = compareComparables(kc, k, pk)) == 0)
dir = tieBreakOrder(k, pk);

TreeNode<K,V> xp = p;
if ((p = (dir <= 0) ? p.left : p.right) == null) {
x.parent = xp;
if (dir <= 0)
xp.left = x;
else
xp.right = x;
root = balanceInsertion(root, x);
break;
}
}
}
}
moveRootToFront(tab, root);
}

/**
* Returns a list of non-TreeNodes replacing those linked from
* this node.
*/
final Node<K,V> untreeify(HashMap<K,V> map) {
Node<K,V> hd = null, tl = null;
for (Node<K,V> q = this; q != null; q = q.next) {
Node<K,V> p = map.replacementNode(q, null);
if (tl == null)
hd = p;
else
tl.next = p;
tl = p;
}
return hd;
}

/**
* Tree version of putVal.
*/
final TreeNode<K,V> putTreeVal(HashMap<K,V> map, Node<K,V>[] tab,
int h, K k, V v) {
Class<?> kc = null;
boolean searched = false;
TreeNode<K,V> root = (parent != null) ? root() : this;
for (TreeNode<K,V> p = root;;) {
int dir, ph; K pk;
if ((ph = p.hash) > h)
dir = -1;
else if (ph < h)
dir = 1;
else if ((pk = p.key) == k || (k != null && k.equals(pk)))
return p;
else if ((kc == null &&
(kc = comparableClassFor(k)) == null) ||
(dir = compareComparables(kc, k, pk)) == 0) {
if (!searched) {
TreeNode<K,V> q, ch;
searched = true;
if (((ch = p.left) != null &&
(q = ch.find(h, k, kc)) != null) ||
((ch = p.right) != null &&
(q = ch.find(h, k, kc)) != null))
return q;
}
dir = tieBreakOrder(k, pk);
}

TreeNode<K,V> xp = p;
if ((p = (dir <= 0) ? p.left : p.right) == null) {
Node<K,V> xpn = xp.next;
TreeNode<K,V> x = map.newTreeNode(h, k, v, xpn);
if (dir <= 0)
xp.left = x;
else
xp.right = x;
xp.next = x;
x.parent = x.prev = xp;
if (xpn != null)
((TreeNode<K,V>)xpn).prev = x;
moveRootToFront(tab, balanceInsertion(root, x));
return null;
}
}
}

/**
* Removes the given node, that must be present before this call.
* This is messier than typical red-black deletion code because we
* cannot swap the contents of an interior node with a leaf
* successor that is pinned by "next" pointers that are accessible
* independently during traversal. So instead we swap the tree
* linkages. If the current tree appears to have too few nodes,
* the bin is converted back to a plain bin. (The test triggers
* somewhere between 2 and 6 nodes, depending on tree structure).
*/
final void removeTreeNode(HashMap<K,V> map, Node<K,V>[] tab,
boolean movable) {
int n;
if (tab == null || (n = tab.length) == 0)
return;
int index = (n - 1) & hash;
TreeNode<K,V> first = (TreeNode<K,V>)tab[index], root = first, rl;
TreeNode<K,V> succ = (TreeNode<K,V>)next, pred = prev;
if (pred == null)
tab[index] = first = succ;
else
pred.next = succ;
if (succ != null)
succ.prev = pred;
if (first == null)
return;
if (root.parent != null)
root = root.root();
if (root == null || root.right == null ||
(rl = root.left) == null || rl.left == null) {
tab[index] = first.untreeify(map); // too small
return;
}
TreeNode<K,V> p = this, pl = left, pr = right, replacement;
if (pl != null && pr != null) {
TreeNode<K,V> s = pr, sl;
while ((sl = s.left) != null) // find successor
s = sl;
boolean c = s.red; s.red = p.red; p.red = c; // swap colors
TreeNode<K,V> sr = s.right;
TreeNode<K,V> pp = p.parent;
if (s == pr) { // p was s's direct parent
p.parent = s;
s.right = p;
}
else {
TreeNode<K,V> sp = s.parent;
if ((p.parent = sp) != null) {
if (s == sp.left)
sp.left = p;
else
sp.right = p;
}
if ((s.right = pr) != null)
pr.parent = s;
}
p.left = null;
if ((p.right = sr) != null)
sr.parent = p;
if ((s.left = pl) != null)
pl.parent = s;
if ((s.parent = pp) == null)
root = s;
else if (p == pp.left)
pp.left = s;
else
pp.right = s;
if (sr != null)
replacement = sr;
else
replacement = p;
}
else if (pl != null)
replacement = pl;
else if (pr != null)
replacement = pr;
else
replacement = p;
if (replacement != p) {
TreeNode<K,V> pp = replacement.parent = p.parent;
if (pp == null)
root = replacement;
else if (p == pp.left)
pp.left = replacement;
else
pp.right = replacement;
p.left = p.right = p.parent = null;
}

TreeNode<K,V> r = p.red ? root : balanceDeletion(root, replacement);

if (replacement == p) { // detach
TreeNode<K,V> pp = p.parent;
p.parent = null;
if (pp != null) {
if (p == pp.left)
pp.left = null;
else if (p == pp.right)
pp.right = null;
}
}
if (movable)
moveRootToFront(tab, r);
}

/**
* Splits nodes in a tree bin into lower and upper tree bins,
* or untreeifies if now too small. Called only from resize;
* see above discussion about split bits and indices.
*
* @param map the map
* @param tab the table for recording bin heads
* @param index the index of the table being split
* @param bit the bit of hash to split on
*/
final void split(HashMap<K,V> map, Node<K,V>[] tab, int index, int bit) {
TreeNode<K,V> b = this;
// Relink into lo and hi lists, preserving order
TreeNode<K,V> loHead = null, loTail = null;
TreeNode<K,V> hiHead = null, hiTail = null;
int lc = 0, hc = 0;
for (TreeNode<K,V> e = b, next; e != null; e = next) {
next = (TreeNode<K,V>)e.next;
e.next = null;
if ((e.hash & bit) == 0) {
if ((e.prev = loTail) == null)
loHead = e;
else
loTail.next = e;
loTail = e;
++lc;
}
else {
if ((e.prev = hiTail) == null)
hiHead = e;
else
hiTail.next = e;
hiTail = e;
++hc;
}
}

if (loHead != null) {
if (lc <= UNTREEIFY_THRESHOLD)
tab[index] = loHead.untreeify(map);
else {
tab[index] = loHead;
if (hiHead != null) // (else is already treeified)
loHead.treeify(tab);
}
}
if (hiHead != null) {
if (hc <= UNTREEIFY_THRESHOLD)
tab[index + bit] = hiHead.untreeify(map);
else {
tab[index + bit] = hiHead;
if (loHead != null)
hiHead.treeify(tab);
}
}
}

/* ------------------------------------------------------------ */
// Red-black tree methods, all adapted from CLR

static <K,V> TreeNode<K,V> rotateLeft(TreeNode<K,V> root,
TreeNode<K,V> p) {
TreeNode<K,V> r, pp, rl;
if (p != null && (r = p.right) != null) {
if ((rl = p.right = r.left) != null)
rl.parent = p;
if ((pp = r.parent = p.parent) == null)
(root = r).red = false;
else if (pp.left == p)
pp.left = r;
else
pp.right = r;
r.left = p;
p.parent = r;
}
return root;
}

static <K,V> TreeNode<K,V> rotateRight(TreeNode<K,V> root,
TreeNode<K,V> p) {
TreeNode<K,V> l, pp, lr;
if (p != null && (l = p.left) != null) {
if ((lr = p.left = l.right) != null)
lr.parent = p;
if ((pp = l.parent = p.parent) == null)
(root = l).red = false;
else if (pp.right == p)
pp.right = l;
else
pp.left = l;
l.right = p;
p.parent = l;
}
return root;
}

static <K,V> TreeNode<K,V> balanceInsertion(TreeNode<K,V> root,
TreeNode<K,V> x) {
x.red = true;
for (TreeNode<K,V> xp, xpp, xppl, xppr;;) {
if ((xp = x.parent) == null) {
x.red = false;
return x;
}
else if (!xp.red || (xpp = xp.parent) == null)
return root;
if (xp == (xppl = xpp.left)) {
if ((xppr = xpp.right) != null && xppr.red) {
xppr.red = false;
xp.red = false;
xpp.red = true;
x = xpp;
}
else {
if (x == xp.right) {
root = rotateLeft(root, x = xp);
xpp = (xp = x.parent) == null ? null : xp.parent;
}
if (xp != null) {
xp.red = false;
if (xpp != null) {
xpp.red = true;
root = rotateRight(root, xpp);
}
}
}
}
else {
if (xppl != null && xppl.red) {
xppl.red = false;
xp.red = false;
xpp.red = true;
x = xpp;
}
else {
if (x == xp.left) {
root = rotateRight(root, x = xp);
xpp = (xp = x.parent) == null ? null : xp.parent;
}
if (xp != null) {
xp.red = false;
if (xpp != null) {
xpp.red = true;
root = rotateLeft(root, xpp);
}
}
}
}
}
}

static <K,V> TreeNode<K,V> balanceDeletion(TreeNode<K,V> root,
TreeNode<K,V> x) {
for (TreeNode<K,V> xp, xpl, xpr;;) {
if (x == null || x == root)
return root;
else if ((xp = x.parent) == null) {
x.red = false;
return x;
}
else if (x.red) {
x.red = false;
return root;
}
else if ((xpl = xp.left) == x) {
if ((xpr = xp.right) != null && xpr.red) {
xpr.red = false;
xp.red = true;
root = rotateLeft(root, xp);
xpr = (xp = x.parent) == null ? null : xp.right;
}
if (xpr == null)
x = xp;
else {
TreeNode<K,V> sl = xpr.left, sr = xpr.right;
if ((sr == null || !sr.red) &&
(sl == null || !sl.red)) {
xpr.red = true;
x = xp;
}
else {
if (sr == null || !sr.red) {
if (sl != null)
sl.red = false;
xpr.red = true;
root = rotateRight(root, xpr);
xpr = (xp = x.parent) == null ?
null : xp.right;
}
if (xpr != null) {
xpr.red = (xp == null) ? false : xp.red;
if ((sr = xpr.right) != null)
sr.red = false;
}
if (xp != null) {
xp.red = false;
root = rotateLeft(root, xp);
}
x = root;
}
}
}
else { // symmetric
if (xpl != null && xpl.red) {
xpl.red = false;
xp.red = true;
root = rotateRight(root, xp);
xpl = (xp = x.parent) == null ? null : xp.left;
}
if (xpl == null)
x = xp;
else {
TreeNode<K,V> sl = xpl.left, sr = xpl.right;
if ((sl == null || !sl.red) &&
(sr == null || !sr.red)) {
xpl.red = true;
x = xp;
}
else {
if (sl == null || !sl.red) {
if (sr != null)
sr.red = false;
xpl.red = true;
root = rotateLeft(root, xpl);
xpl = (xp = x.parent) == null ?
null : xp.left;
}
if (xpl != null) {
xpl.red = (xp == null) ? false : xp.red;
if ((sl = xpl.left) != null)
sl.red = false;
}
if (xp != null) {
xp.red = false;
root = rotateRight(root, xp);
}
x = root;
}
}
}
}
}

/**
* Recursive invariant check
*/
static <K,V> boolean checkInvariants(TreeNode<K,V> t) {
TreeNode<K,V> tp = t.parent, tl = t.left, tr = t.right,
tb = t.prev, tn = (TreeNode<K,V>)t.next;
if (tb != null && tb.next != t)
return false;
if (tn != null && tn.prev != t)
return false;
if (tp != null && t != tp.left && t != tp.right)
return false;
if (tl != null && (tl.parent != t || tl.hash > t.hash))
return false;
if (tr != null && (tr.parent != t || tr.hash < t.hash))
return false;
if (t.red && tl != null && tl.red && tr != null && tr.red)
return false;
if (tl != null && !checkInvariants(tl))
return false;
if (tr != null && !checkInvariants(tr))
return false;
return true;
}
}

}

1、首先要清楚HashMap的存储结构,如下图所示:
hashmap
图中,紫色部分即代表哈希表,也称为哈希数组,数组的每个元素都是一个单链表的头节点,链表是用来解决冲突的,如果不同的key映射到了数组的同一位置处,就将其放入单链表中。

2、首先看链表中节点的数据结构:
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// Entry是单向链表。    
// 它是 “HashMap链式存储法”对应的链表。
// 它实现了Map.Entry 接口,即实现getKey(), getValue(), setValue(V value), equals(Object o), hashCode()这些函数
static class Entry<K,V> implements Map.Entry<K,V> {
final K key;
V value;
// 指向下一个节点
Entry<K,V> next;
final int hash;

// 构造函数。
// 输入参数包括"哈希值(h)", "键(k)", "值(v)", "下一节点(n)"
Entry(int h, K k, V v, Entry<K,V> n) {
value = v;
next = n;
key = k;
hash = h;
}

public final K getKey() {
return key;
}

public final V getValue() {
return value;
}

public final V setValue(V newValue) {
V oldValue = value;
value = newValue;
return oldValue;
}

// 判断两个Entry是否相等
// 若两个Entry的“key”和“value”都相等,则返回true。
// 否则,返回false
public final boolean equals(Object o) {
if (!(o instanceof Map.Entry))
return false;
Map.Entry e = (Map.Entry)o;
Object k1 = getKey();
Object k2 = e.getKey();
if (k1 == k2 || (k1 != null && k1.equals(k2))) {
Object v1 = getValue();
Object v2 = e.getValue();
if (v1 == v2 || (v1 != null && v1.equals(v2)))
return true;
}
return false;
}

// 实现hashCode()
public final int hashCode() {
return (key==null ? 0 : key.hashCode()) ^
(value==null ? 0 : value.hashCode());
}

public final String toString() {
return getKey() + "=" + getValue();
}

// 当向HashMap中添加元素时,绘调用recordAccess()。
// 这里不做任何处理
void recordAccess(HashMap<K,V> m) {
}

// 当从HashMap中删除元素时,绘调用recordRemoval()。
// 这里不做任何处理
void recordRemoval(HashMap<K,V> m) {
}
}

它的结构元素除了key、value、hash外,还有next,next指向下一个节点。另外,这里覆写了equals和hashCode方法来保证键值对的独一无二。

3、HashMap共有四个构造方法。构造方法中提到了两个很重要的参数:初始容量和加载因子。这两个参数是影响HashMap性能的重要参数,其中容量表示哈希表中槽的数量(即哈希数组的长度),初始容量是创建哈希表时的容量(从构造函数中可以看出,如果不指明,则默认为16),加载因子是哈希表在其容量自动增加之前可以达到多满的一种尺度,当哈希表中的条目数超出了加载因子与当前容量的乘积时,则要对该哈希表进行 resize 操作(即扩容)。

下面说下加载因子,如果加载因子越大,对空间的利用更充分,但是查找效率会降低(链表长度会越来越长);如果加载因子太小,那么表中的数据将过于稀疏(很多空间还没用,就开始扩容了),对空间造成严重浪费。如果我们在构造方法中不指定,则系统默认加载因子为0.75,这是一个比较理想的值,一般情况下我们是无需修改的。

另外,无论我们指定的容量为多少,构造方法都会将实际容量设为不小于指定容量的2的次方的一个数,且最大值不能超过2的30次方

4、HashMap中key和value都允许为null。

5、要重点分析下HashMap中用的最多的两个方法put和get。先从比较简单的get方法着手,源码如下
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// 获取key对应的value    
public V get(Object key) {
if (key == null)
return getForNullKey();
// 获取key的hash值
int hash = hash(key.hashCode());
// 在“该hash值对应的链表”上查找“键值等于key”的元素
for (Entry<K,V> e = table[indexFor(hash, table.length)];
e != null;
e = e.next) {
Object k;
/判断key是否相同
if (e.hash == hash && ((k = e.key) == key || key.equals(k)))
return e.value;
}
没找到则返回null
return null;
}

// 获取“key为null”的元素的值
// HashMap将“key为null”的元素存储在table[0]位置,但不一定是该链表的第一个位置!
private V getForNullKey() {
for (Entry<K,V> e = table[0]; e != null; e = e.next) {
if (e.key == null)
return e.value;
}
return null;
}

首先,如果key为null,则直接从哈希表的第一个位置table[0]对应的链表上查找。记住,key为null的键值对永远都放在以table[0]为头结点的链表中,当然不一定是存放在头结点table[0]中。

如果key不为null,则先求的key的hash值,根据hash值找到在table中的索引,在该索引对应的单链表中查找是否有键值对的key与目标key相等,有就返回对应的value,没有则返回null。

put方法稍微复杂些,代码如下:
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  // 将“key-value”添加到HashMap中    
public V put(K key, V value) {
// 若“key为null”,则将该键值对添加到table[0]中。
if (key == null)
return putForNullKey(value);
// 若“key不为null”,则计算该key的哈希值,然后将其添加到该哈希值对应的链表中。
int hash = hash(key.hashCode());
int i = indexFor(hash, table.length);
for (Entry<K,V> e = table[i]; e != null; e = e.next) {
Object k;
// 若“该key”对应的键值对已经存在,则用新的value取代旧的value。然后退出!
if (e.hash == hash && ((k = e.key) == key || key.equals(k))) {
V oldValue = e.value;
e.value = value;
e.recordAccess(this);
return oldValue;
}
}

// 若“该key”对应的键值对不存在,则将“key-value”添加到table中
modCount++;
//将key-value添加到table[i]处
addEntry(hash, key, value, i);
return null;
}

如果key为null,则将其添加到table[0]对应的链表中,putForNullKey的源码如下:

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// putForNullKey()的作用是将“key为null”键值对添加到table[0]位置    
private V putForNullKey(V value) {
for (Entry<K,V> e = table[0]; e != null; e = e.next) {
if (e.key == null) {
V oldValue = e.value;
e.value = value;
e.recordAccess(this);
return oldValue;
}
}
// 如果没有存在key为null的键值对,则直接题阿见到table[0]处!
modCount++;
addEntry(0, null, value, 0);
return null;
}

如果key不为null,则同样先求出key的hash值,根据hash值得出在table中的索引,而后遍历对应的单链表,如果单链表中存在与目标key相等的键值对,则将新的value覆盖旧的value,比将旧的value返回,如果找不到与目标key相等的键值对,或者该单链表为空,则将该键值对插入到改单链表的头结点位置(每次新插入的节点都是放在头结点的位置),该操作是有addEntry方法实现的,它的源码如下:

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// 新增Entry。将“key-value”插入指定位置,bucketIndex是位置索引。
void addEntry(int hash, K key, V value, int bucketIndex) {
// 保存“bucketIndex”位置的值到“e”中
Entry<K,V> e = table[bucketIndex];
// 设置“bucketIndex”位置的元素为“新Entry”,
// 设置“e”为“新Entry的下一个节点”
table[bucketIndex] = new Entry<K,V>(hash, key, value, e);
// 若HashMap的实际大小 不小于 “阈值”,则调整HashMap的大小
if (size++ >= threshold)
resize(2 * table.length);
}

注意这里倒数第三行的构造方法,将key-value键值对赋给table[bucketIndex],并将其next指向元素e,这便将key-value放到了头结点中,并将之前的头结点接在了它的后面。该方法也说明,每次put键值对的时候,总是将新的该键值对放在table[bucketIndex]处(即头结点处)。

两外注意最后两行代码,每次加入键值对时,都要判断当前已用的槽的数目是否大于等于阀值(容量*加载因子),如果大于等于,则进行扩容,将容量扩为原来容量的2倍。

6、关于扩容。上面我们看到了扩容的方法,resize方法,它的源码如下:
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// 重新调整HashMap的大小,newCapacity是调整后的单位    
void resize(int newCapacity) {
Entry[] oldTable = table;
int oldCapacity = oldTable.length;
if (oldCapacity == MAXIMUM_CAPACITY) {
threshold = Integer.MAX_VALUE;
return;
}

// 新建一个HashMap,将“旧HashMap”的全部元素添加到“新HashMap”中,
// 然后,将“新HashMap”赋值给“旧HashMap”。
Entry[] newTable = new Entry[newCapacity];
transfer(newTable);
table = newTable;
threshold = (int)(newCapacity * loadFactor);
}

很明显,是新建了一个HashMap的底层数组,而后调用transfer方法,将就HashMap的全部元素添加到新的HashMap中(要重新计算元素在新的数组中的索引位置)。transfer方法的源码如下:

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// 将HashMap中的全部元素都添加到newTable中    
void transfer(Entry[] newTable) {
Entry[] src = table;
int newCapacity = newTable.length;
for (int j = 0; j < src.length; j++) {
Entry<K,V> e = src[j];
if (e != null) {
src[j] = null;
do {
Entry<K,V> next = e.next;
int i = indexFor(e.hash, newCapacity);
e.next = newTable[i];
newTable[i] = e;
e = next;
} while (e != null);
}
}
}

很明显,扩容是一个相当耗时的操作,因为它需要重新计算这些元素在新的数组中的位置并进行复制处理。因此,我们在用HashMap的时,最好能提前预估下HashMap中元素的个数,这样有助于提高HashMap的性能。

7、注意containsKey方法和containsValue方法。前者直接可以通过key的哈希值将搜索范围定位到指定索引对应的链表,而后者要对哈希数组的每个链表进行搜索。

8、我们重点来分析下求hash值和索引值的方法,这两个方法便是HashMap设计的最为核心的部分,二者结合能保证哈希表中的元素尽可能均匀地散列。

计算哈希值的方法如下:
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static int hash(int h) {  
h ^= (h >>> 20) ^ (h >>> 12);
return h ^ (h >>> 7) ^ (h >>> 4);
}

它只是一个数学公式,JDK这样设计对hash值的计算,自然有它的好处,至于为什么这样设计,我们这里不去追究,只要明白一点,用的位的操作使hash值的计算效率很高。

由hash值找到对应索引的方法如下:
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static int indexFor(int h, int length) {  
return h & (length-1);
}

这个我们要重点说下,我们一般对哈希表的散列很自然地会想到用hash值对length取模(即除法散列法),Hashtable中也是这样实现的,这种方法基本能保证元素在哈希表中散列的比较均匀,但取模会用到除法运算,效率很低,HashMap中则通过h&(length-1)的方法来代替取模,同样实现了均匀的散列,但效率要高很多,这也是HashMap对Hashtable的一个改进。

接下来,我们分析下为什么哈希表的容量一定要是2的整数次幂。首先,length为2的整数次幂的话,h&(length-1)就相当于对length取模,这样便保证了散列的均匀,同时也提升了效率;其次,length为2的整数次幂的话,为偶数,这样length-1为奇数,奇数的最后一位是1,这样便保证了h&(length-1)的最后一位可能为0,也可能为1(这取决于h的值),即与后的结果可能为偶数,也可能为奇数,这样便可以保证散列的均匀性,而如果length为奇数的话,很明显length-1为偶数,它的最后一位是0,这样h&(length-1)的最后一位肯定为0,即只能为偶数,这样任何hash值都只会被散列到数组的偶数下标位置上,这便浪费了近一半的空间,因此,length取2的整数次幂,是为了使不同hash值发生碰撞的概率较小,这样就能使元素在哈希表中均匀地散列。

Hashtable

Hashtable同样是基于哈希表实现的,同样每个元素是一个key-value对,其内部也是通过单链表解决冲突问题,容量不足(超过了阀值)时,同样会自动增长。

Hashtable也是JDK1.0引入的类,是线程安全的,能用于多线程环境中。

Hashtable同样实现了Serializable接口,它支持序列化,实现了Cloneable接口,能被克隆。

HashTable源码

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/*
* Copyright (c) 1994, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
* ORACLE PROPRIETARY/CONFIDENTIAL. Use is subject to license terms.
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*/

package java.util;

import java.io.*;
import java.util.concurrent.ThreadLocalRandom;
import java.util.function.BiConsumer;
import java.util.function.Function;
import java.util.function.BiFunction;

/**
* This class implements a hash table, which maps keys to values. Any
* non-<code>null</code> object can be used as a key or as a value. <p>
*
* To successfully store and retrieve objects from a hashtable, the
* objects used as keys must implement the <code>hashCode</code>
* method and the <code>equals</code> method. <p>
*
* An instance of <code>Hashtable</code> has two parameters that affect its
* performance: <i>initial capacity</i> and <i>load factor</i>. The
* <i>capacity</i> is the number of <i>buckets</i> in the hash table, and the
* <i>initial capacity</i> is simply the capacity at the time the hash table
* is created. Note that the hash table is <i>open</i>: in the case of a "hash
* collision", a single bucket stores multiple entries, which must be searched
* sequentially. The <i>load factor</i> is a measure of how full the hash
* table is allowed to get before its capacity is automatically increased.
* The initial capacity and load factor parameters are merely hints to
* the implementation. The exact details as to when and whether the rehash
* method is invoked are implementation-dependent.<p>
*
* Generally, the default load factor (.75) offers a good tradeoff between
* time and space costs. Higher values decrease the space overhead but
* increase the time cost to look up an entry (which is reflected in most
* <tt>Hashtable</tt> operations, including <tt>get</tt> and <tt>put</tt>).<p>
*
* The initial capacity controls a tradeoff between wasted space and the
* need for <code>rehash</code> operations, which are time-consuming.
* No <code>rehash</code> operations will <i>ever</i> occur if the initial
* capacity is greater than the maximum number of entries the
* <tt>Hashtable</tt> will contain divided by its load factor. However,
* setting the initial capacity too high can waste space.<p>
*
* If many entries are to be made into a <code>Hashtable</code>,
* creating it with a sufficiently large capacity may allow the
* entries to be inserted more efficiently than letting it perform
* automatic rehashing as needed to grow the table. <p>
*
* This example creates a hashtable of numbers. It uses the names of
* the numbers as keys:
* <pre> {@code
* Hashtable<String, Integer> numbers
* = new Hashtable<String, Integer>();
* numbers.put("one", 1);
* numbers.put("two", 2);
* numbers.put("three", 3);}</pre>
*
* <p>To retrieve a number, use the following code:
* <pre> {@code
* Integer n = numbers.get("two");
* if (n != null) {
* System.out.println("two = " + n);
* }}</pre>
*
* <p>The iterators returned by the <tt>iterator</tt> method of the collections
* returned by all of this class's "collection view methods" are
* <em>fail-fast</em>: if the Hashtable is structurally modified at any time
* after the iterator is created, in any way except through the iterator's own
* <tt>remove</tt> method, the iterator will throw a {@link
* ConcurrentModificationException}. Thus, in the face of concurrent
* modification, the iterator fails quickly and cleanly, rather than risking
* arbitrary, non-deterministic behavior at an undetermined time in the future.
* The Enumerations returned by Hashtable's keys and elements methods are
* <em>not</em> fail-fast.
*
* <p>Note that the fail-fast behavior of an iterator cannot be guaranteed
* as it is, generally speaking, impossible to make any hard guarantees in the
* presence of unsynchronized concurrent modification. Fail-fast iterators
* throw <tt>ConcurrentModificationException</tt> on a best-effort basis.
* Therefore, it would be wrong to write a program that depended on this
* exception for its correctness: <i>the fail-fast behavior of iterators
* should be used only to detect bugs.</i>
*
* <p>As of the Java 2 platform v1.2, this class was retrofitted to
* implement the {@link Map} interface, making it a member of the
* <a href="{@docRoot}/../technotes/guides/collections/index.html">
*
* Java Collections Framework</a>. Unlike the new collection
* implementations, {@code Hashtable} is synchronized. If a
* thread-safe implementation is not needed, it is recommended to use
* {@link HashMap} in place of {@code Hashtable}. If a thread-safe
* highly-concurrent implementation is desired, then it is recommended
* to use {@link java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentHashMap} in place of
* {@code Hashtable}.
*
* @author Arthur van Hoff
* @author Josh Bloch
* @author Neal Gafter
* @see Object#equals(java.lang.Object)
* @see Object#hashCode()
* @see Hashtable#rehash()
* @see Collection
* @see Map
* @see HashMap
* @see TreeMap
* @since JDK1.0
*/
public class Hashtable<K,V>
extends Dictionary<K,V>
implements Map<K,V>, Cloneable, java.io.Serializable {

/**
* The hash table data.
*/
private transient Entry<?,?>[] table;

/**
* The total number of entries in the hash table.
*/
private transient int count;

/**
* The table is rehashed when its size exceeds this threshold. (The
* value of this field is (int)(capacity * loadFactor).)
*
* @serial
*/
private int threshold;

/**
* The load factor for the hashtable.
*
* @serial
*/
private float loadFactor;

/**
* The number of times this Hashtable has been structurally modified
* Structural modifications are those that change the number of entries in
* the Hashtable or otherwise modify its internal structure (e.g.,
* rehash). This field is used to make iterators on Collection-views of
* the Hashtable fail-fast. (See ConcurrentModificationException).
*/
private transient int modCount = 0;

/** use serialVersionUID from JDK 1.0.2 for interoperability */
private static final long serialVersionUID = 1421746759512286392L;

/**
* Constructs a new, empty hashtable with the specified initial
* capacity and the specified load factor.
*
* @param initialCapacity the initial capacity of the hashtable.
* @param loadFactor the load factor of the hashtable.
* @exception IllegalArgumentException if the initial capacity is less
* than zero, or if the load factor is nonpositive.
*/
public Hashtable(int initialCapacity, float loadFactor) {
if (initialCapacity < 0)
throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal Capacity: "+
initialCapacity);
if (loadFactor <= 0 || Float.isNaN(loadFactor))
throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal Load: "+loadFactor);

if (initialCapacity==0)
initialCapacity = 1;
this.loadFactor = loadFactor;
table = new Entry<?,?>[initialCapacity];
threshold = (int)Math.min(initialCapacity * loadFactor, MAX_ARRAY_SIZE + 1);
}

/**
* Constructs a new, empty hashtable with the specified initial capacity
* and default load factor (0.75).
*
* @param initialCapacity the initial capacity of the hashtable.
* @exception IllegalArgumentException if the initial capacity is less
* than zero.
*/
public Hashtable(int initialCapacity) {
this(initialCapacity, 0.75f);
}

/**
* Constructs a new, empty hashtable with a default initial capacity (11)
* and load factor (0.75).
*/
public Hashtable() {
this(11, 0.75f);
}

/**
* Constructs a new hashtable with the same mappings as the given
* Map. The hashtable is created with an initial capacity sufficient to
* hold the mappings in the given Map and a default load factor (0.75).
*
* @param t the map whose mappings are to be placed in this map.
* @throws NullPointerException if the specified map is null.
* @since 1.2
*/
public Hashtable(Map<? extends K, ? extends V> t) {
this(Math.max(2*t.size(), 11), 0.75f);
putAll(t);
}

/**
* Returns the number of keys in this hashtable.
*
* @return the number of keys in this hashtable.
*/
public synchronized int size() {
return count;
}

/**
* Tests if this hashtable maps no keys to values.
*
* @return <code>true</code> if this hashtable maps no keys to values;
* <code>false</code> otherwise.
*/
public synchronized boolean isEmpty() {
return count == 0;
}

/**
* Returns an enumeration of the keys in this hashtable.
*
* @return an enumeration of the keys in this hashtable.
* @see Enumeration
* @see #elements()
* @see #keySet()
* @see Map
*/
public synchronized Enumeration<K> keys() {
return this.<K>getEnumeration(KEYS);
}

/**
* Returns an enumeration of the values in this hashtable.
* Use the Enumeration methods on the returned object to fetch the elements
* sequentially.
*
* @return an enumeration of the values in this hashtable.
* @see java.util.Enumeration
* @see #keys()
* @see #values()
* @see Map
*/
public synchronized Enumeration<V> elements() {
return this.<V>getEnumeration(VALUES);
}

/**
* Tests if some key maps into the specified value in this hashtable.
* This operation is more expensive than the {@link #containsKey
* containsKey} method.
*
* <p>Note that this method is identical in functionality to
* {@link #containsValue containsValue}, (which is part of the
* {@link Map} interface in the collections framework).
*
* @param value a value to search for
* @return <code>true</code> if and only if some key maps to the
* <code>value</code> argument in this hashtable as
* determined by the <tt>equals</tt> method;
* <code>false</code> otherwise.
* @exception NullPointerException if the value is <code>null</code>
*/
public synchronized boolean contains(Object value) {
if (value == null) {
throw new NullPointerException();
}

Entry<?,?> tab[] = table;
for (int i = tab.length ; i-- > 0 ;) {
for (Entry<?,?> e = tab[i] ; e != null ; e = e.next) {
if (e.value.equals(value)) {
return true;
}
}
}
return false;
}

/**
* Returns true if this hashtable maps one or more keys to this value.
*
* <p>Note that this method is identical in functionality to {@link
* #contains contains} (which predates the {@link Map} interface).
*
* @param value value whose presence in this hashtable is to be tested
* @return <tt>true</tt> if this map maps one or more keys to the
* specified value
* @throws NullPointerException if the value is <code>null</code>
* @since 1.2
*/
public boolean containsValue(Object value) {
return contains(value);
}

/**
* Tests if the specified object is a key in this hashtable.
*
* @param key possible key
* @return <code>true</code> if and only if the specified object
* is a key in this hashtable, as determined by the
* <tt>equals</tt> method; <code>false</code> otherwise.
* @throws NullPointerException if the key is <code>null</code>
* @see #contains(Object)
*/
public synchronized boolean containsKey(Object key) {
Entry<?,?> tab[] = table;
int hash = key.hashCode();
int index = (hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;
for (Entry<?,?> e = tab[index] ; e != null ; e = e.next) {
if ((e.hash == hash) && e.key.equals(key)) {
return true;
}
}
return false;
}

/**
* Returns the value to which the specified key is mapped,
* or {@code null} if this map contains no mapping for the key.
*
* <p>More formally, if this map contains a mapping from a key
* {@code k} to a value {@code v} such that {@code (key.equals(k))},
* then this method returns {@code v}; otherwise it returns
* {@code null}. (There can be at most one such mapping.)
*
* @param key the key whose associated value is to be returned
* @return the value to which the specified key is mapped, or
* {@code null} if this map contains no mapping for the key
* @throws NullPointerException if the specified key is null
* @see #put(Object, Object)
*/
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public synchronized V get(Object key) {
Entry<?,?> tab[] = table;
int hash = key.hashCode();
int index = (hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;
for (Entry<?,?> e = tab[index] ; e != null ; e = e.next) {
if ((e.hash == hash) && e.key.equals(key)) {
return (V)e.value;
}
}
return null;
}

/**
* The maximum size of array to allocate.
* Some VMs reserve some header words in an array.
* Attempts to allocate larger arrays may result in
* OutOfMemoryError: Requested array size exceeds VM limit
*/
private static final int MAX_ARRAY_SIZE = Integer.MAX_VALUE - 8;

/**
* Increases the capacity of and internally reorganizes this
* hashtable, in order to accommodate and access its entries more
* efficiently. This method is called automatically when the
* number of keys in the hashtable exceeds this hashtable's capacity
* and load factor.
*/
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
protected void rehash() {
int oldCapacity = table.length;
Entry<?,?>[] oldMap = table;

// overflow-conscious code
int newCapacity = (oldCapacity << 1) + 1;
if (newCapacity - MAX_ARRAY_SIZE > 0) {
if (oldCapacity == MAX_ARRAY_SIZE)
// Keep running with MAX_ARRAY_SIZE buckets
return;
newCapacity = MAX_ARRAY_SIZE;
}
Entry<?,?>[] newMap = new Entry<?,?>[newCapacity];

modCount++;
threshold = (int)Math.min(newCapacity * loadFactor, MAX_ARRAY_SIZE + 1);
table = newMap;

for (int i = oldCapacity ; i-- > 0 ;) {
for (Entry<K,V> old = (Entry<K,V>)oldMap[i] ; old != null ; ) {
Entry<K,V> e = old;
old = old.next;

int index = (e.hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % newCapacity;
e.next = (Entry<K,V>)newMap[index];
newMap[index] = e;
}
}
}

private void addEntry(int hash, K key, V value, int index) {
modCount++;

Entry<?,?> tab[] = table;
if (count >= threshold) {
// Rehash the table if the threshold is exceeded
rehash();

tab = table;
hash = key.hashCode();
index = (hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;
}

// Creates the new entry.
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
Entry<K,V> e = (Entry<K,V>) tab[index];
tab[index] = new Entry<>(hash, key, value, e);
count++;
}

/**
* Maps the specified <code>key</code> to the specified
* <code>value</code> in this hashtable. Neither the key nor the
* value can be <code>null</code>. <p>
*
* The value can be retrieved by calling the <code>get</code> method
* with a key that is equal to the original key.
*
* @param key the hashtable key
* @param value the value
* @return the previous value of the specified key in this hashtable,
* or <code>null</code> if it did not have one
* @exception NullPointerException if the key or value is
* <code>null</code>
* @see Object#equals(Object)
* @see #get(Object)
*/
public synchronized V put(K key, V value) {
// Make sure the value is not null
if (value == null) {
throw new NullPointerException();
}

// Makes sure the key is not already in the hashtable.
Entry<?,?> tab[] = table;
int hash = key.hashCode();
int index = (hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
Entry<K,V> entry = (Entry<K,V>)tab[index];
for(; entry != null ; entry = entry.next) {
if ((entry.hash == hash) && entry.key.equals(key)) {
V old = entry.value;
entry.value = value;
return old;
}
}

addEntry(hash, key, value, index);
return null;
}

/**
* Removes the key (and its corresponding value) from this
* hashtable. This method does nothing if the key is not in the hashtable.
*
* @param key the key that needs to be removed
* @return the value to which the key had been mapped in this hashtable,
* or <code>null</code> if the key did not have a mapping
* @throws NullPointerException if the key is <code>null</code>
*/
public synchronized V remove(Object key) {
Entry<?,?> tab[] = table;
int hash = key.hashCode();
int index = (hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
Entry<K,V> e = (Entry<K,V>)tab[index];
for(Entry<K,V> prev = null ; e != null ; prev = e, e = e.next) {
if ((e.hash == hash) && e.key.equals(key)) {
modCount++;
if (prev != null) {
prev.next = e.next;
} else {
tab[index] = e.next;
}
count--;
V oldValue = e.value;
e.value = null;
return oldValue;
}
}
return null;
}

/**
* Copies all of the mappings from the specified map to this hashtable.
* These mappings will replace any mappings that this hashtable had for any
* of the keys currently in the specified map.
*
* @param t mappings to be stored in this map
* @throws NullPointerException if the specified map is null
* @since 1.2
*/
public synchronized void putAll(Map<? extends K, ? extends V> t) {
for (Map.Entry<? extends K, ? extends V> e : t.entrySet())
put(e.getKey(), e.getValue());
}

/**
* Clears this hashtable so that it contains no keys.
*/
public synchronized void clear() {
Entry<?,?> tab[] = table;
modCount++;
for (int index = tab.length; --index >= 0; )
tab[index] = null;
count = 0;
}

/**
* Creates a shallow copy of this hashtable. All the structure of the
* hashtable itself is copied, but the keys and values are not cloned.
* This is a relatively expensive operation.
*
* @return a clone of the hashtable
*/
public synchronized Object clone() {
try {
Hashtable<?,?> t = (Hashtable<?,?>)super.clone();
t.table = new Entry<?,?>[table.length];
for (int i = table.length ; i-- > 0 ; ) {
t.table[i] = (table[i] != null)
? (Entry<?,?>) table[i].clone() : null;
}
t.keySet = null;
t.entrySet = null;
t.values = null;
t.modCount = 0;
return t;
} catch (CloneNotSupportedException e) {
// this shouldn't happen, since we are Cloneable
throw new InternalError(e);
}
}

/**
* Returns a string representation of this <tt>Hashtable</tt> object
* in the form of a set of entries, enclosed in braces and separated
* by the ASCII characters "<tt>,&nbsp;</tt>" (comma and space). Each
* entry is rendered as the key, an equals sign <tt>=</tt>, and the
* associated element, where the <tt>toString</tt> method is used to
* convert the key and element to strings.
*
* @return a string representation of this hashtable
*/
public synchronized String toString() {
int max = size() - 1;
if (max == -1)
return "{}";

StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
Iterator<Map.Entry<K,V>> it = entrySet().iterator();

sb.append('{');
for (int i = 0; ; i++) {
Map.Entry<K,V> e = it.next();
K key = e.getKey();
V value = e.getValue();
sb.append(key == this ? "(this Map)" : key.toString());
sb.append('=');
sb.append(value == this ? "(this Map)" : value.toString());

if (i == max)
return sb.append('}').toString();
sb.append(", ");
}
}


private <T> Enumeration<T> getEnumeration(int type) {
if (count == 0) {
return Collections.emptyEnumeration();
} else {
return new Enumerator<>(type, false);
}
}

private <T> Iterator<T> getIterator(int type) {
if (count == 0) {
return Collections.emptyIterator();
} else {
return new Enumerator<>(type, true);
}
}

// Views

/**
* Each of these fields are initialized to contain an instance of the
* appropriate view the first time this view is requested. The views are
* stateless, so there's no reason to create more than one of each.
*/
private transient volatile Set<K> keySet;
private transient volatile Set<Map.Entry<K,V>> entrySet;
private transient volatile Collection<V> values;

/**
* Returns a {@link Set} view of the keys contained in this map.
* The set is backed by the map, so changes to the map are
* reflected in the set, and vice-versa. If the map is modified
* while an iteration over the set is in progress (except through
* the iterator's own <tt>remove</tt> operation), the results of
* the iteration are undefined. The set supports element removal,
* which removes the corresponding mapping from the map, via the
* <tt>Iterator.remove</tt>, <tt>Set.remove</tt>,
* <tt>removeAll</tt>, <tt>retainAll</tt>, and <tt>clear</tt>
* operations. It does not support the <tt>add</tt> or <tt>addAll</tt>
* operations.
*
* @since 1.2
*/
public Set<K> keySet() {
if (keySet == null)
keySet = Collections.synchronizedSet(new KeySet(), this);
return keySet;
}

private class KeySet extends AbstractSet<K> {
public Iterator<K> iterator() {
return getIterator(KEYS);
}
public int size() {
return count;
}
public boolean contains(Object o) {
return containsKey(o);
}
public boolean remove(Object o) {
return Hashtable.this.remove(o) != null;
}
public void clear() {
Hashtable.this.clear();
}
}

/**
* Returns a {@link Set} view of the mappings contained in this map.
* The set is backed by the map, so changes to the map are
* reflected in the set, and vice-versa. If the map is modified
* while an iteration over the set is in progress (except through
* the iterator's own <tt>remove</tt> operation, or through the
* <tt>setValue</tt> operation on a map entry returned by the
* iterator) the results of the iteration are undefined. The set
* supports element removal, which removes the corresponding
* mapping from the map, via the <tt>Iterator.remove</tt>,
* <tt>Set.remove</tt>, <tt>removeAll</tt>, <tt>retainAll</tt> and
* <tt>clear</tt> operations. It does not support the
* <tt>add</tt> or <tt>addAll</tt> operations.
*
* @since 1.2
*/
public Set<Map.Entry<K,V>> entrySet() {
if (entrySet==null)
entrySet = Collections.synchronizedSet(new EntrySet(), this);
return entrySet;
}

private class EntrySet extends AbstractSet<Map.Entry<K,V>> {
public Iterator<Map.Entry<K,V>> iterator() {
return getIterator(ENTRIES);
}

public boolean add(Map.Entry<K,V> o) {
return super.add(o);
}

public boolean contains(Object o) {
if (!(o instanceof Map.Entry))
return false;
Map.Entry<?,?> entry = (Map.Entry<?,?>)o;
Object key = entry.getKey();
Entry<?,?>[] tab = table;
int hash = key.hashCode();
int index = (hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;

for (Entry<?,?> e = tab[index]; e != null; e = e.next)
if (e.hash==hash && e.equals(entry))
return true;
return false;
}

public boolean remove(Object o) {
if (!(o instanceof Map.Entry))
return false;
Map.Entry<?,?> entry = (Map.Entry<?,?>) o;
Object key = entry.getKey();
Entry<?,?>[] tab = table;
int hash = key.hashCode();
int index = (hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;

@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
Entry<K,V> e = (Entry<K,V>)tab[index];
for(Entry<K,V> prev = null; e != null; prev = e, e = e.next) {
if (e.hash==hash && e.equals(entry)) {
modCount++;
if (prev != null)
prev.next = e.next;
else
tab[index] = e.next;

count--;
e.value = null;
return true;
}
}
return false;
}

public int size() {
return count;
}

public void clear() {
Hashtable.this.clear();
}
}

/**
* Returns a {@link Collection} view of the values contained in this map.
* The collection is backed by the map, so changes to the map are
* reflected in the collection, and vice-versa. If the map is
* modified while an iteration over the collection is in progress
* (except through the iterator's own <tt>remove</tt> operation),
* the results of the iteration are undefined. The collection
* supports element removal, which removes the corresponding
* mapping from the map, via the <tt>Iterator.remove</tt>,
* <tt>Collection.remove</tt>, <tt>removeAll</tt>,
* <tt>retainAll</tt> and <tt>clear</tt> operations. It does not
* support the <tt>add</tt> or <tt>addAll</tt> operations.
*
* @since 1.2
*/
public Collection<V> values() {
if (values==null)
values = Collections.synchronizedCollection(new ValueCollection(),
this);
return values;
}

private class ValueCollection extends AbstractCollection<V> {
public Iterator<V> iterator() {
return getIterator(VALUES);
}
public int size() {
return count;
}
public boolean contains(Object o) {
return containsValue(o);
}
public void clear() {
Hashtable.this.clear();
}
}

// Comparison and hashing

/**
* Compares the specified Object with this Map for equality,
* as per the definition in the Map interface.
*
* @param o object to be compared for equality with this hashtable
* @return true if the specified Object is equal to this Map
* @see Map#equals(Object)
* @since 1.2
*/
public synchronized boolean equals(Object o) {
if (o == this)
return true;

if (!(o instanceof Map))
return false;
Map<?,?> t = (Map<?,?>) o;
if (t.size() != size())
return false;

try {
Iterator<Map.Entry<K,V>> i = entrySet().iterator();
while (i.hasNext()) {
Map.Entry<K,V> e = i.next();
K key = e.getKey();
V value = e.getValue();
if (value == null) {
if (!(t.get(key)==null && t.containsKey(key)))
return false;
} else {
if (!value.equals(t.get(key)))
return false;
}
}
} catch (ClassCastException unused) {
return false;
} catch (NullPointerException unused) {
return false;
}

return true;
}

/**
* Returns the hash code value for this Map as per the definition in the
* Map interface.
*
* @see Map#hashCode()
* @since 1.2
*/
public synchronized int hashCode() {
/*
* This code detects the recursion caused by computing the hash code
* of a self-referential hash table and prevents the stack overflow
* that would otherwise result. This allows certain 1.1-era
* applets with self-referential hash tables to work. This code
* abuses the loadFactor field to do double-duty as a hashCode
* in progress flag, so as not to worsen the space performance.
* A negative load factor indicates that hash code computation is
* in progress.
*/
int h = 0;
if (count == 0 || loadFactor < 0)
return h; // Returns zero

loadFactor = -loadFactor; // Mark hashCode computation in progress
Entry<?,?>[] tab = table;
for (Entry<?,?> entry : tab) {
while (entry != null) {
h += entry.hashCode();
entry = entry.next;
}
}

loadFactor = -loadFactor; // Mark hashCode computation complete

return h;
}

@Override
public synchronized V getOrDefault(Object key, V defaultValue) {
V result = get(key);
return (null == result) ? defaultValue : result;
}

@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
@Override
public synchronized void forEach(BiConsumer<? super K, ? super V> action) {
Objects.requireNonNull(action); // explicit check required in case
// table is empty.
final int expectedModCount = modCount;

Entry<?, ?>[] tab = table;
for (Entry<?, ?> entry : tab) {
while (entry != null) {
action.accept((K)entry.key, (V)entry.value);
entry = entry.next;

if (expectedModCount != modCount) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}
}
}

@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
@Override
public synchronized void replaceAll(BiFunction<? super K, ? super V, ? extends V> function) {
Objects.requireNonNull(function); // explicit check required in case
// table is empty.
final int expectedModCount = modCount;

Entry<K, V>[] tab = (Entry<K, V>[])table;
for (Entry<K, V> entry : tab) {
while (entry != null) {
entry.value = Objects.requireNonNull(
function.apply(entry.key, entry.value));
entry = entry.next;

if (expectedModCount != modCount) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}
}
}

@Override
public synchronized V putIfAbsent(K key, V value) {
Objects.requireNonNull(value);

// Makes sure the key is not already in the hashtable.
Entry<?,?> tab[] = table;
int hash = key.hashCode();
int index = (hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
Entry<K,V> entry = (Entry<K,V>)tab[index];
for (; entry != null; entry = entry.next) {
if ((entry.hash == hash) && entry.key.equals(key)) {
V old = entry.value;
if (old == null) {
entry.value = value;
}
return old;
}
}

addEntry(hash, key, value, index);
return null;
}

@Override
public synchronized boolean remove(Object key, Object value) {
Objects.requireNonNull(value);

Entry<?,?> tab[] = table;
int hash = key.hashCode();
int index = (hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
Entry<K,V> e = (Entry<K,V>)tab[index];
for (Entry<K,V> prev = null; e != null; prev = e, e = e.next) {
if ((e.hash == hash) && e.key.equals(key) && e.value.equals(value)) {
modCount++;
if (prev != null) {
prev.next = e.next;
} else {
tab[index] = e.next;
}
count--;
e.value = null;
return true;
}
}
return false;
}

@Override
public synchronized boolean replace(K key, V oldValue, V newValue) {
Objects.requireNonNull(oldValue);
Objects.requireNonNull(newValue);
Entry<?,?> tab[] = table;
int hash = key.hashCode();
int index = (hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
Entry<K,V> e = (Entry<K,V>)tab[index];
for (; e != null; e = e.next) {
if ((e.hash == hash) && e.key.equals(key)) {
if (e.value.equals(oldValue)) {
e.value = newValue;
return true;
} else {
return false;
}
}
}
return false;
}

@Override
public synchronized V replace(K key, V value) {
Objects.requireNonNull(value);
Entry<?,?> tab[] = table;
int hash = key.hashCode();
int index = (hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
Entry<K,V> e = (Entry<K,V>)tab[index];
for (; e != null; e = e.next) {
if ((e.hash == hash) && e.key.equals(key)) {
V oldValue = e.value;
e.value = value;
return oldValue;
}
}
return null;
}

@Override
public synchronized V computeIfAbsent(K key, Function<? super K, ? extends V> mappingFunction) {
Objects.requireNonNull(mappingFunction);

Entry<?,?> tab[] = table;
int hash = key.hashCode();
int index = (hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
Entry<K,V> e = (Entry<K,V>)tab[index];
for (; e != null; e = e.next) {
if (e.hash == hash && e.key.equals(key)) {
// Hashtable not accept null value
return e.value;
}
}

V newValue = mappingFunction.apply(key);
if (newValue != null) {
addEntry(hash, key, newValue, index);
}

return newValue;
}

@Override
public synchronized V computeIfPresent(K key, BiFunction<? super K, ? super V, ? extends V> remappingFunction) {
Objects.requireNonNull(remappingFunction);

Entry<?,?> tab[] = table;
int hash = key.hashCode();
int index = (hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
Entry<K,V> e = (Entry<K,V>)tab[index];
for (Entry<K,V> prev = null; e != null; prev = e, e = e.next) {
if (e.hash == hash && e.key.equals(key)) {
V newValue = remappingFunction.apply(key, e.value);
if (newValue == null) {
modCount++;
if (prev != null) {
prev.next = e.next;
} else {
tab[index] = e.next;
}
count--;
} else {
e.value = newValue;
}
return newValue;
}
}
return null;
}

@Override
public synchronized V compute(K key, BiFunction<? super K, ? super V, ? extends V> remappingFunction) {
Objects.requireNonNull(remappingFunction);

Entry<?,?> tab[] = table;
int hash = key.hashCode();
int index = (hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
Entry<K,V> e = (Entry<K,V>)tab[index];
for (Entry<K,V> prev = null; e != null; prev = e, e = e.next) {
if (e.hash == hash && Objects.equals(e.key, key)) {
V newValue = remappingFunction.apply(key, e.value);
if (newValue == null) {
modCount++;
if (prev != null) {
prev.next = e.next;
} else {
tab[index] = e.next;
}
count--;
} else {
e.value = newValue;
}
return newValue;
}
}

V newValue = remappingFunction.apply(key, null);
if (newValue != null) {
addEntry(hash, key, newValue, index);
}

return newValue;
}

@Override
public synchronized V merge(K key, V value, BiFunction<? super V, ? super V, ? extends V> remappingFunction) {
Objects.requireNonNull(remappingFunction);

Entry<?,?> tab[] = table;
int hash = key.hashCode();
int index = (hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
Entry<K,V> e = (Entry<K,V>)tab[index];
for (Entry<K,V> prev = null; e != null; prev = e, e = e.next) {
if (e.hash == hash && e.key.equals(key)) {
V newValue = remappingFunction.apply(e.value, value);
if (newValue == null) {
modCount++;
if (prev != null) {
prev.next = e.next;
} else {
tab[index] = e.next;
}
count--;
} else {
e.value = newValue;
}
return newValue;
}
}

if (value != null) {
addEntry(hash, key, value, index);
}

return value;
}

/**
* Save the state of the Hashtable to a stream (i.e., serialize it).
*
* @serialData The <i>capacity</i> of the Hashtable (the length of the
* bucket array) is emitted (int), followed by the
* <i>size</i> of the Hashtable (the number of key-value
* mappings), followed by the key (Object) and value (Object)
* for each key-value mapping represented by the Hashtable
* The key-value mappings are emitted in no particular order.
*/
private void writeObject(java.io.ObjectOutputStream s)
throws IOException {
Entry<Object, Object> entryStack = null;

synchronized (this) {
// Write out the threshold and loadFactor
s.defaultWriteObject();

// Write out the length and count of elements
s.writeInt(table.length);
s.writeInt(count);

// Stack copies of the entries in the table
for (int index = 0; index < table.length; index++) {
Entry<?,?> entry = table[index];

while (entry != null) {
entryStack =
new Entry<>(0, entry.key, entry.value, entryStack);
entry = entry.next;
}
}
}

// Write out the key/value objects from the stacked entries
while (entryStack != null) {
s.writeObject(entryStack.key);
s.writeObject(entryStack.value);
entryStack = entryStack.next;
}
}

/**
* Reconstitute the Hashtable from a stream (i.e., deserialize it).
*/
private void readObject(java.io.ObjectInputStream s)
throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException
{
// Read in the threshold and loadFactor
s.defaultReadObject();

// Validate loadFactor (ignore threshold - it will be re-computed)
if (loadFactor <= 0 || Float.isNaN(loadFactor))
throw new StreamCorruptedException("Illegal Load: " + loadFactor);

// Read the original length of the array and number of elements
int origlength = s.readInt();
int elements = s.readInt();

// Validate # of elements
if (elements < 0)
throw new StreamCorruptedException("Illegal # of Elements: " + elements);

// Clamp original length to be more than elements / loadFactor
// (this is the invariant enforced with auto-growth)
origlength = Math.max(origlength, (int)(elements / loadFactor) + 1);

// Compute new length with a bit of room 5% + 3 to grow but
// no larger than the clamped original length. Make the length
// odd if it's large enough, this helps distribute the entries.
// Guard against the length ending up zero, that's not valid.
int length = (int)((elements + elements / 20) / loadFactor) + 3;
if (length > elements && (length & 1) == 0)
length--;
length = Math.min(length, origlength);
table = new Entry<?,?>[length];
threshold = (int)Math.min(length * loadFactor, MAX_ARRAY_SIZE + 1);
count = 0;

// Read the number of elements and then all the key/value objects
for (; elements > 0; elements--) {
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
K key = (K)s.readObject();
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
V value = (V)s.readObject();
// sync is eliminated for performance
reconstitutionPut(table, key, value);
}
}

/**
* The put method used by readObject. This is provided because put
* is overridable and should not be called in readObject since the
* subclass will not yet be initialized.
*
* <p>This differs from the regular put method in several ways. No
* checking for rehashing is necessary since the number of elements
* initially in the table is known. The modCount is not incremented and
* there's no synchronization because we are creating a new instance.
* Also, no return value is needed.
*/
private void reconstitutionPut(Entry<?,?>[] tab, K key, V value)
throws StreamCorruptedException
{
if (value == null) {
throw new java.io.StreamCorruptedException();
}
// Makes sure the key is not already in the hashtable.
// This should not happen in deserialized version.
int hash = key.hashCode();
int index = (hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;
for (Entry<?,?> e = tab[index] ; e != null ; e = e.next) {
if ((e.hash == hash) && e.key.equals(key)) {
throw new java.io.StreamCorruptedException();
}
}
// Creates the new entry.
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
Entry<K,V> e = (Entry<K,V>)tab[index];
tab[index] = new Entry<>(hash, key, value, e);
count++;
}

/**
* Hashtable bucket collision list entry
*/
private static class Entry<K,V> implements Map.Entry<K,V> {
final int hash;
final K key;
V value;
Entry<K,V> next;

protected Entry(int hash, K key, V value, Entry<K,V> next) {
this.hash = hash;
this.key = key;
this.value = value;
this.next = next;
}

@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
protected Object clone() {
return new Entry<>(hash, key, value,
(next==null ? null : (Entry<K,V>) next.clone()));
}

// Map.Entry Ops

public K getKey() {
return key;
}

public V getValue() {
return value;
}

public V setValue(V value) {
if (value == null)
throw new NullPointerException();

V oldValue = this.value;
this.value = value;
return oldValue;
}

public boolean equals(Object o) {
if (!(o instanceof Map.Entry))
return false;
Map.Entry<?,?> e = (Map.Entry<?,?>)o;

return (key==null ? e.getKey()==null : key.equals(e.getKey())) &&
(value==null ? e.getValue()==null : value.equals(e.getValue()));
}

public int hashCode() {
return hash ^ Objects.hashCode(value);
}

public String toString() {
return key.toString()+"="+value.toString();
}
}

// Types of Enumerations/Iterations
private static final int KEYS = 0;
private static final int VALUES = 1;
private static final int ENTRIES = 2;

/**
* A hashtable enumerator class. This class implements both the
* Enumeration and Iterator interfaces, but individual instances
* can be created with the Iterator methods disabled. This is necessary
* to avoid unintentionally increasing the capabilities granted a user
* by passing an Enumeration.
*/
private class Enumerator<T> implements Enumeration<T>, Iterator<T> {
Entry<?,?>[] table = Hashtable.this.table;
int index = table.length;
Entry<?,?> entry;
Entry<?,?> lastReturned;
int type;

/**
* Indicates whether this Enumerator is serving as an Iterator
* or an Enumeration. (true -> Iterator).
*/
boolean iterator;

/**
* The modCount value that the iterator believes that the backing
* Hashtable should have. If this expectation is violated, the iterator
* has detected concurrent modification.
*/
protected int expectedModCount = modCount;

Enumerator(int type, boolean iterator) {
this.type = type;
this.iterator = iterator;
}

public boolean hasMoreElements() {
Entry<?,?> e = entry;
int i = index;
Entry<?,?>[] t = table;
/* Use locals for faster loop iteration */
while (e == null && i > 0) {
e = t[--i];
}
entry = e;
index = i;
return e != null;
}

@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public T nextElement() {
Entry<?,?> et = entry;
int i = index;
Entry<?,?>[] t = table;
/* Use locals for faster loop iteration */
while (et == null && i > 0) {
et = t[--i];
}
entry = et;
index = i;
if (et != null) {
Entry<?,?> e = lastReturned = entry;
entry = e.next;
return type == KEYS ? (T)e.key : (type == VALUES ? (T)e.value : (T)e);
}
throw new NoSuchElementException("Hashtable Enumerator");
}

// Iterator methods
public boolean hasNext() {
return hasMoreElements();
}

public T next() {
if (modCount != expectedModCount)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
return nextElement();
}

public void remove() {
if (!iterator)
throw new UnsupportedOperationException();
if (lastReturned == null)
throw new IllegalStateException("Hashtable Enumerator");
if (modCount != expectedModCount)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();

synchronized(Hashtable.this) {
Entry<?,?>[] tab = Hashtable.this.table;
int index = (lastReturned.hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;

@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
Entry<K,V> e = (Entry<K,V>)tab[index];
for(Entry<K,V> prev = null; e != null; prev = e, e = e.next) {
if (e == lastReturned) {
modCount++;
expectedModCount++;
if (prev == null)
tab[index] = e.next;
else
prev.next = e.next;
count--;
lastReturned = null;
return;
}
}
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}
}
}

针对Hashtable,我们同样给出几点比较重要的总结,但要结合与HashMap的比较来总结。

1、二者的存储结构和解决冲突的方法都是相同的。

2、HashTable在不指定容量的情况下的默认容量为11,而HashMap为16,Hashtable不要求底层数组的容量一定要为2的整数次幂,而HashMap则要求一定为2的整数次幂。

3、Hashtable中key和value都不允许为null,而HashMap中key和value都允许为null(key只能有一个为null,而value则可以有多个为null)。但是如果在Hashtable中有类似put(null,null)的操作,编译同样可以通过,因为key和value都是Object类型,但运行时会抛出NullPointerException异常,这是JDK的规范规定的。我们来看下ContainsKey方法和ContainsValue的源码
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// 判断Hashtable是否包含“值(value)”    
public synchronized boolean contains(Object value) {
//注意,Hashtable中的value不能是null,
// 若是null的话,抛出异常!
if (value == null) {
throw new NullPointerException();
}

// 从后向前遍历table数组中的元素(Entry)
// 对于每个Entry(单向链表),逐个遍历,判断节点的值是否等于value
Entry tab[] = table;
for (int i = tab.length ; i-- > 0 ;) {
for (Entry<K,V> e = tab[i] ; e != null ; e = e.next) {
if (e.value.equals(value)) {
return true;
}
}
}
return false;
}

public boolean containsValue(Object value) {
return contains(value);
}

// 判断Hashtable是否包含key
public synchronized boolean containsKey(Object key) {
Entry tab[] = table;
/计算hash值,直接用key的hashCode代替
int hash = key.hashCode();
// 计算在数组中的索引值
int index = (hash & 0x7FFFFFFF) % tab.length;
// 找到“key对应的Entry(链表)”,然后在链表中找出“哈希值”和“键值”与key都相等的元素
for (Entry<K,V> e = tab[index] ; e != null ; e = e.next) {
if ((e.hash == hash) && e.key.equals(key)) {
return true;
}
}
return false;
}

很明显,如果value为null,会直接抛出NullPointerException异常,但源码中并没有对key是否为null判断,有点小不解!不过NullPointerException属于RuntimeException异常,是可以由JVM自动抛出的,也许对key的值在JVM中有所限制吧。

4、Hashtable扩容时,将容量变为原来的2倍加1,而HashMap扩容时,将容量变为原来的2倍。
5、Hashtable计算hash值,直接用key的hashCode(),而HashMap重新计算了key的hash值,Hashtable在求hash值对应的位置索引时,用取模运算,而HashMap在求位置索引时,则用与运算,且这里一般先用hash&0x7FFFFFFF后,再对length取模,&0x7FFFFFFF的目的是为了将负的hash值转化为正值,因为hash值有可能为负数,而&0x7FFFFFFF后,只有符号外改变,而后面的位都不变。

TreeMap

TreeMap是基于红黑树实现的,这里只对红黑树做个简单的介绍,红黑树是一种特殊的二叉排序树,关于二叉排序树,参见:http://blog.csdn.net/ns_code/article/details/19823463,红黑树通过一些限制,使其不会出现二叉树排序树中极端的一边倒的情况,相对二叉排序树而言,这自然提高了查询的效率。

二叉排序树的基本性质如下:

1、每个节点都只能是红色或者黑色

2、根节点是黑色

3、每个叶节点(NIL节点,空节点)是黑色的。

4、如果一个结点是红的,则它两个子节点都是黑的。也就是说在一条路径上不能出现相邻的两个红色结点。

5、从任一节点到其每个叶子的所有路径都包含相同数目的黑色节点。

正是这些性质的限制,使得红黑树中任一节点到其子孙叶子节点的最长路径不会长于最短路径的2倍,因此它是一种接近平衡的二叉树。

说到红黑树,自然不免要和AVL树对比一番。相比较而言,AVL树是严格的平衡二叉树,而红黑树不算严格意义上的平衡二叉树,只是接近平衡,不会让树的高度如BST极端情况那样等于节点的个数。其实能用到红黑树的地方,也都可以用AVL树来实现,但红黑树的应用却非常广泛,而AVL树则很少被使用。在执行插入、删除操作时,AVL树需要调整的次数一般要比红黑树多(红黑树的旋转调整最多只需三次),效率相对较低,且红黑树的统计性能较AVL树要好,当然AVL树在查询效率上可能更胜一筹,但实际上也高不了多少。

红黑树的插入删除操作很简单,就是单纯的二叉排序树的插入删除操作。红黑树被认为比较变态的地方自然在于插入删除后对红黑树的调整操作(旋转和着色),主要是情况分的很多,限于篇幅及博主的熟悉程度优先,这里不打算详细介绍插入删除后调整红黑树的各种情况及其实现,我们有个宏观上的了解即可,如须详细了解,参见算法导论或一些相关的资料。

TreeMap源码

存储结构

TreeMap的排序是基于对key的排序实现的,它的每一个Entry代表红黑树的一个节点,Entry的数据结构如下:
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static final class Entry<K,V> implements Map.Entry<K,V> {    
// 键
K key;
// 值
V value;
// 左孩子
Entry<K,V> left = null;
// 右孩子
Entry<K,V> right = null;
// 父节点
Entry<K,V> parent;
// 当前节点颜色
boolean color = BLACK;

// 构造函数
Entry(K key, V value, Entry<K,V> parent) {
this.key = key;
this.value = value;
this.parent = parent;
}

。。。。。
}

构造方法

先来看下TreeMap的构造方法。TreeMap一共有4个构造方法。

1、无参构造方法
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public TreeMap() {    
comparator = null;
}

采用无参构造方法,不指定比较器,这时候,排序的实现要依赖key.compareTo()方法,因此key必须实现Comparable接口,并覆写其中的compareTo方法。

2、带有比较器的构造方法
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public TreeMap(Comparator<? super K> comparator) {    
this.comparator = comparator;
}

采用带比较器的构造方法,这时候,排序依赖该比较器,key可以不用实现Comparable接口。

3、带Map的构造方法
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public TreeMap(Map<? extends K, ? extends V> m) {    
comparator = null;
putAll(m);
}

该构造方法同样不指定比较器,调用putAll方法将Map中的所有元素加入到TreeMap中。putAll的源码如下:

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// 将map中的全部节点添加到TreeMap中    
public void putAll(Map<? extends K, ? extends V> map) {
// 获取map的大小
int mapSize = map.size();
// 如果TreeMap的大小是0,且map的大小不是0,且map是已排序的“key-value对”
if (size==0 && mapSize!=0 && map instanceof SortedMap) {
Comparator c = ((SortedMap)map).comparator();
// 如果TreeMap和map的比较器相等;
// 则将map的元素全部拷贝到TreeMap中,然后返回!
if (c == comparator || (c != null && c.equals(comparator))) {
++modCount;
try {
buildFromSorted(mapSize, map.entrySet().iterator(),
null, null);
} catch (java.io.IOException cannotHappen) {
} catch (ClassNotFoundException cannotHappen) {
}
return;
}
}
// 调用AbstractMap中的putAll();
// AbstractMap中的putAll()又会调用到TreeMap的put()
super.putAll(map);
}

显然,如果Map里的元素是排好序的,就调用buildFromSorted方法来拷贝Map中的元素,这在下一个构造方法中会重点提及,而如果Map中的元素不是排好序的,就调用AbstractMap的putAll(map)方法,该方法源码如下:

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public void putAll(Map<? extends K, ? extends V> m) {    
for (Map.Entry<? extends K, ? extends V> e : m.entrySet())
put(e.getKey(), e.getValue());
}

很明显它是将Map中的元素一个个put(插入)到TreeMap中的,主要因为Map中的元素是无序存放的,因此要一个个插入到红黑树中,使其有序存放,并满足红黑树的性质。

4、带有SortedMap的构造方法
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public TreeMap(SortedMap<K, ? extends V> m) {    
comparator = m.comparator();
try {
buildFromSorted(m.size(), m.entrySet().iterator(), null, null);
} catch (java.io.IOException cannotHappen) {
} catch (ClassNotFoundException cannotHappen) {
}
}

首先将比较器指定为m的比较器,这取决于生成m时调用构造方法是否传入了指定的构造器,而后调用buildFromSorted方法,将SortedMap中的元素插入到TreeMap中,由于SortedMap中的元素师有序的,实际上它是根据SortedMap创建的TreeMap,将SortedMap中对应的元素添加到TreeMap中。

插入删除

插入操作即对应TreeMap的put方法,put操作实际上只需按照二叉排序树的插入步骤来操作即可,插入到指定位置后,再做调整,使其保持红黑树的特性。put源码的实现:
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public V put(K key, V value) {    
Entry<K,V> t = root;
// 若红黑树为空,则插入根节点
if (t == null) {
// TBD:
// 5045147: (coll) Adding null to an empty TreeSet should
// throw NullPointerException
//
// compare(key, key); // type check
root = new Entry<K,V>(key, value, null);
size = 1;
modCount++;
return null;
}
int cmp;
Entry<K,V> parent;
// split comparator and comparable paths
Comparator<? super K> cpr = comparator;
// 找出(key, value)在二叉排序树中的插入位置。
// 红黑树是以key来进行排序的,所以这里以key来进行查找。
if (cpr != null) {
do {
parent = t;
cmp = cpr.compare(key, t.key);
if (cmp < 0)
t = t.left;
else if (cmp > 0)
t = t.right;
else
return t.setValue(value);
} while (t != null);
}
else {
if (key == null)
throw new NullPointerException();
Comparable<? super K> k = (Comparable<? super K>) key;
do {
parent = t;
cmp = k.compareTo(t.key);
if (cmp < 0)
t = t.left;
else if (cmp > 0)
t = t.right;
else
return t.setValue(value);
} while (t != null);
}
// 为(key-value)新建节点
Entry<K,V> e = new Entry<K,V>(key, value, parent);
if (cmp < 0)
parent.left = e;
else
parent.right = e;
// 插入新的节点后,调用fixAfterInsertion调整红黑树。
fixAfterInsertion(e);
size++;
modCount++;
return null;
}

这里的fixAfterInsertion便是节点插入后对树进行调整的方法,这里不做介绍。
删除操作及对应TreeMap的deleteEntry方法,deleteEntry方法同样也只需按照二叉排序树的操作步骤实现即可,删除指定节点后,再对树进行调整即可。deleteEntry方法的实现源码如下:

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// 删除“红黑树的节点p”    
private void deleteEntry(Entry<K,V> p) {
modCount++;
size--;

if (p.left != null && p.right != null) {
Entry<K,V> s = successor (p);
p.key = s.key;
p.value = s.value;
p = s;
}

Entry<K,V> replacement = (p.left != null ? p.left : p.right);

if (replacement != null) {
replacement.parent = p.parent;
if (p.parent == null)
root = replacement;
else if (p == p.parent.left)
p.parent.left = replacement;
else
p.parent.right = replacement;

p.left = p.right = p.parent = null;

if (p.color == BLACK)
fixAfterDeletion(replacement);
} else if (p.parent == null) {
root = null;
} else {
if (p.color == BLACK)
fixAfterDeletion(p);

if (p.parent != null) {
if (p == p.parent.left)
p.parent.left = null;
else if (p == p.parent.right)
p.parent.right = null;
p.parent = null;
}
}
}

后面的fixAfterDeletion方法便是节点删除后对树进行调整的方法,这里不做介绍。

其他很多方法这里不再一一介绍。

本文对TreeMap的分析较前几篇文章有些浅尝辄止,TreeMap用的没有HashMap那么多,我们有个宏观上的把我和比较即可。

1、TreeMap是根据key进行排序的,它的排序和定位需要依赖比较器或覆写Comparable接口,也因此不需要key覆写hashCode方法和equals方法,就可以排除掉重复的key,而HashMap的key则需要通过覆写hashCode方法和equals方法来确保没有重复的key。

2、TreeMap的查询、插入、删除效率均没有HashMap高,一般只有要对key排序时才使用TreeMap。

3、TreeMap的key不能为null,而HashMap的key可以为null。


注:对TreeSet和HashSet的源码不再进行剖析,二者分别是基于TreeMap和HashMap实现的,只是对应的节点中只有key,而没有value,因此对TreeMap和HashMap比较了解的话,对TreeSet和HashSet的理解就会非常容易。

LinkedHashMap

LinkedHashMap是HashMap的子类,与HashMap有着同样的存储结构,但它加入了一个双向链表的头结点,将所有put到LinkedHashmap的节点一一串成了一个双向循环链表,因此它保留了节点插入的顺序,可以使节点的输出顺序与输入顺序相同。

LinkedHashMap可以用来实现LRU算法(这会在下面的源码中进行分析)。

LinkedHashMap同样是非线程安全的,只在单线程环境下使用。

LinkedHashMap源码

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package java.util;  
import java.io.*;


public class LinkedHashMap<K,V>
extends HashMap<K,V>
implements Map<K,V>
{

private static final long serialVersionUID = 3801124242820219131L;

//双向循环链表的头结点,整个LinkedHa只哟shMap中只有一个header,
//它将哈希表中所有的Entry贯穿起来,header中不保存key-value对,只保存前后节点的引用
private transient Entry<K,V> header;

//双向链表中元素排序规则的标志位。
//accessOrder为false,表示按插入顺序排序
//accessOrder为true,表示按访问顺序排序
private final boolean accessOrder;

//调用HashMap的构造方法来构造底层的数组
public LinkedHashMap(int initialCapacity, float loadFactor) {
super(initialCapacity, loadFactor);
accessOrder = false; //链表中的元素默认按照插入顺序排序
}

//加载因子取默认的0.75f
public LinkedHashMap(int initialCapacity) {
super(initialCapacity);
accessOrder = false;
}

//加载因子取默认的0.75f,容量取默认的16
public LinkedHashMap() {
super();
accessOrder = false;
}

//含有子Map的构造方法,同样调用HashMap的对应的构造方法
public LinkedHashMap(Map<? extends K, ? extends V> m) {
super(m);
accessOrder = false;
}

//该构造方法可以指定链表中的元素排序的规则
public LinkedHashMap(int initialCapacity,float loadFactor,boolean accessOrder) {
super(initialCapacity, loadFactor);
this.accessOrder = accessOrder;
}

//覆写父类的init()方法(HashMap中的init方法为空),
//该方法在父类的构造方法和Clone、readObject中在插入元素前被调用,
//初始化一个空的双向循环链表,头结点中不保存数据,头结点的下一个节点才开始保存数据。
void init() {
header = new Entry<K,V>(-1, null, null, null);
header.before = header.after = header;
}


//覆写HashMap中的transfer方法,它在父类的resize方法中被调用,
//扩容后,将key-value对重新映射到新的newTable中
//覆写该方法的目的是为了提高复制的效率,
//这里充分利用双向循环链表的特点进行迭代,不用对底层的数组进行for循环。
void transfer(HashMap.Entry[] newTable) {
int newCapacity = newTable.length;
for (Entry<K,V> e = header.after; e != header; e = e.after) {
int index = indexFor(e.hash, newCapacity);
e.next = newTable[index];
newTable[index] = e;
}
}


//覆写HashMap中的containsValue方法,
//覆写该方法的目的同样是为了提高查询的效率,
//利用双向循环链表的特点进行查询,少了对数组的外层for循环
public boolean containsValue(Object value) {
// Overridden to take advantage of faster iterator
if (value==null) {
for (Entry e = header.after; e != header; e = e.after)
if (e.value==null)
return true;
} else {
for (Entry e = header.after; e != header; e = e.after)
if (value.equals(e.value))
return true;
}
return false;
}


//覆写HashMap中的get方法,通过getEntry方法获取Entry对象。
//注意这里的recordAccess方法,
//如果链表中元素的排序规则是按照插入的先后顺序排序的话,该方法什么也不做,
//如果链表中元素的排序规则是按照访问的先后顺序排序的话,则将e移到链表的末尾处。
public V get(Object key) {
Entry<K,V> e = (Entry<K,V>)getEntry(key);
if (e == null)
return null;
e.recordAccess(this);
return e.value;
}

//清空HashMap,并将双向链表还原为只有头结点的空链表
public void clear() {
super.clear();
header.before = header.after = header;
}

//Enty的数据结构,多了两个指向前后节点的引用
private static class Entry<K,V> extends HashMap.Entry<K,V> {
// These fields comprise the doubly linked list used for iteration.
Entry<K,V> before, after;

//调用父类的构造方法
Entry(int hash, K key, V value, HashMap.Entry<K,V> next) {
super(hash, key, value, next);
}

//双向循环链表中,删除当前的Entry
private void remove() {
before.after = after;
after.before = before;
}

//双向循环立链表中,将当前的Entry插入到existingEntry的前面
private void addBefore(Entry<K,V> existingEntry) {
after = existingEntry;
before = existingEntry.before;
before.after = this;
after.before = this;
}


//覆写HashMap中的recordAccess方法(HashMap中该方法为空),
//当调用父类的put方法,在发现插入的key已经存在时,会调用该方法,
//调用LinkedHashmap覆写的get方法时,也会调用到该方法,
//该方法提供了LRU算法的实现,它将最近使用的Entry放到双向循环链表的尾部,
//accessOrder为true时,get方法会调用recordAccess方法
//put方法在覆盖key-value对时也会调用recordAccess方法
//它们导致Entry最近使用,因此将其移到双向链表的末尾
void recordAccess(HashMap<K,V> m) {
LinkedHashMap<K,V> lm = (LinkedHashMap<K,V>)m;
//如果链表中元素按照访问顺序排序,则将当前访问的Entry移到双向循环链表的尾部,
//如果是按照插入的先后顺序排序,则不做任何事情。
if (lm.accessOrder) {
lm.modCount++;
//移除当前访问的Entry
remove();
//将当前访问的Entry插入到链表的尾部
addBefore(lm.header);
}
}

void recordRemoval(HashMap<K,V> m) {
remove();
}
}

//迭代器
private abstract class LinkedHashIterator<T> implements Iterator<T> {
Entry<K,V> nextEntry = header.after;
Entry<K,V> lastReturned = null;

/**
* The modCount value that the iterator believes that the backing
* List should have. If this expectation is violated, the iterator
* has detected concurrent modification.
*/
int expectedModCount = modCount;

public boolean hasNext() {
return nextEntry != header;
}

public void remove() {
if (lastReturned == null)
throw new IllegalStateException();
if (modCount != expectedModCount)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();

LinkedHashMap.this.remove(lastReturned.key);
lastReturned = null;
expectedModCount = modCount;
}

//从head的下一个节点开始迭代
Entry<K,V> nextEntry() {
if (modCount != expectedModCount)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
if (nextEntry == header)
throw new NoSuchElementException();

Entry<K,V> e = lastReturned = nextEntry;
nextEntry = e.after;
return e;
}
}

//key迭代器
private class KeyIterator extends LinkedHashIterator<K> {
public K next() { return nextEntry().getKey(); }
}

//value迭代器
private class ValueIterator extends LinkedHashIterator<V> {
public V next() { return nextEntry().value; }
}

//Entry迭代器
private class EntryIterator extends LinkedHashIterator<Map.Entry<K,V>> {
public Map.Entry<K,V> next() { return nextEntry(); }
}

// These Overrides alter the behavior of superclass view iterator() methods
Iterator<K> newKeyIterator() { return new KeyIterator(); }
Iterator<V> newValueIterator() { return new ValueIterator(); }
Iterator<Map.Entry<K,V>> newEntryIterator() { return new EntryIterator(); }


//覆写HashMap中的addEntry方法,LinkedHashmap并没有覆写HashMap中的put方法,
//而是覆写了put方法所调用的addEntry方法和recordAccess方法,
//put方法在插入的key已存在的情况下,会调用recordAccess方法,
//在插入的key不存在的情况下,要调用addEntry插入新的Entry
void addEntry(int hash, K key, V value, int bucketIndex) {
//创建新的Entry,并插入到LinkedHashMap中
createEntry(hash, key, value, bucketIndex);

//双向链表的第一个有效节点(header后的那个节点)为近期最少使用的节点
Entry<K,V> eldest = header.after;
//如果有必要,则删除掉该近期最少使用的节点,
//这要看对removeEldestEntry的覆写,由于默认为false,因此默认是不做任何处理的。
if (removeEldestEntry(eldest)) {
removeEntryForKey(eldest.key);
} else {
//扩容到原来的2倍
if (size >= threshold)
resize(2 * table.length);
}
}

void createEntry(int hash, K key, V value, int bucketIndex) {
//创建新的Entry,并将其插入到数组对应槽的单链表的头结点处,这点与HashMap中相同
HashMap.Entry<K,V> old = table[bucketIndex];
Entry<K,V> e = new Entry<K,V>(hash, key, value, old);
table[bucketIndex] = e;
//每次插入Entry时,都将其移到双向链表的尾部,
//这便会按照Entry插入LinkedHashMap的先后顺序来迭代元素,
//同时,新put进来的Entry是最近访问的Entry,把其放在链表末尾 ,符合LRU算法的实现
e.addBefore(header);
size++;
}

//该方法是用来被覆写的,一般如果用LinkedHashmap实现LRU算法,就要覆写该方法,
//比如可以将该方法覆写为如果设定的内存已满,则返回true,这样当再次向LinkedHashMap中put
//Entry时,在调用的addEntry方法中便会将近期最少使用的节点删除掉(header后的那个节点)。
protected boolean removeEldestEntry(Map.Entry<K,V> eldest) {
return false;
}
}

关于LinkedHashMap的源码,给出以下几点比较重要的总结:

1、从源码中可以看出,LinkedHashMap中加入了一个head头结点,将所有插入到该LinkedHashMap中的Entry按照插入的先后顺序依次加入到以head为头结点的双向循环链表的尾部。
![linkedhashmap](/uploads/images/linkedhashmap.jpeg)

实际上就是HashMap和LinkedList两个集合类的存储结构的结合。在LinkedHashMapMap中,所有put进来的Entry都保存在如第一个图所示的哈希表中,但它又额外定义了一个以head为头结点的空的双向循环链表,每次put进来Entry,除了将其保存到对哈希表中对应的位置上外,还要将其插入到双向循环链表的尾部。

2、LinkedHashMap由于继承自HashMap,因此它具有HashMap的所有特性,同样允许key和value为null。

3、注意源码中的accessOrder标志位,当它false时,表示双向链表中的元素按照Entry插入LinkedHashMap到中的先后顺序排序,即每次put到LinkedHashMap中的Entry都放在双向链表的尾部,这样遍历双向链表时,Entry的输出顺序便和插入的顺序一致,这也是默认的双向链表的存储顺序;当它为true时,表示双向链表中的元素按照访问的先后顺序排列,可以看到,虽然Entry插入链表的顺序依然是按照其put到LinkedHashMap中的顺序,但put和get方法均有调用recordAccess方法(put方法在key相同,覆盖原有的Entry的情况下调用recordAccess方法),该方法判断accessOrder是否为true,如果是,则将当前访问的Entry(put进来的Entry或get出来的Entry)移到双向链表的尾部(key不相同时,put新Entry时,会调用addEntry,它会调用creatEntry,该方法同样将新插入的元素放入到双向链表的尾部,既符合插入的先后顺序,又符合访问的先后顺序,因为这时该Entry也被访问了),否则,什么也不做。

4、注意构造方法,前四个构造方法都将accessOrder设为false,说明默认是按照插入顺序排序的,而第五个构造方法可以自定义传入的accessOrder的值,因此可以指定双向循环链表中元素的排序规则,一般要用LinkedHashMap实现LRU算法,就要用该构造方法,将accessOrder置为true。

5、LinkedHashMap并没有覆写HashMap中的put方法,而是覆写了put方法中调用的addEntry方法和recordAccess方法,我们回过头来再看下HashMap的put方法:
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// 将“key-value”添加到HashMap中      
public V put(K key, V value) {
// 若“key为null”,则将该键值对添加到table[0]中。
if (key == null)
return putForNullKey(value);
// 若“key不为null”,则计算该key的哈希值,然后将其添加到该哈希值对应的链表中。
int hash = hash(key.hashCode());
int i = indexFor(hash, table.length);
for (Entry<K,V> e = table[i]; e != null; e = e.next) {
Object k;
// 若“该key”对应的键值对已经存在,则用新的value取代旧的value。然后退出!
if (e.hash == hash && ((k = e.key) == key || key.equals(k))) {
V oldValue = e.value;
e.value = value;
e.recordAccess(this);
return oldValue;
}
}

// 若“该key”对应的键值对不存在,则将“key-value”添加到table中
modCount++;
//将key-value添加到table[i]处
addEntry(hash, key, value, i);
return null;
}

当要put进来的Entry的key在哈希表中已经在存在时,会调用recordAccess方法,当该key不存在时,则会调用addEntry方法将新的Entry插入到对应槽的单链表的头部。

我们先来看recordAccess方法:
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//覆写HashMap中的recordAccess方法(HashMap中该方法为空),  
//当调用父类的put方法,在发现插入的key已经存在时,会调用该方法,
//调用LinkedHashmap覆写的get方法时,也会调用到该方法,
//该方法提供了LRU算法的实现,它将最近使用的Entry放到双向循环链表的尾部,
//accessOrder为true时,get方法会调用recordAccess方法
//put方法在覆盖key-value对时也会调用recordAccess方法
//它们导致Entry最近使用,因此将其移到双向链表的末尾
void recordAccess(HashMap<K,V> m) {
LinkedHashMap<K,V> lm = (LinkedHashMap<K,V>)m;
//如果链表中元素按照访问顺序排序,则将当前访问的Entry移到双向循环链表的尾部,
//如果是按照插入的先后顺序排序,则不做任何事情。
if (lm.accessOrder) {
lm.modCount++;
//移除当前访问的Entry
remove();
//将当前访问的Entry插入到链表的尾部
addBefore(lm.header);
}
}

该方法会判断accessOrder是否为true,如果为true,它会将当前访问的Entry(在这里指put进来的Entry)移动到双向循环链表的尾部,从而实现双向链表中的元素按照访问顺序来排序(最近访问的Entry放到链表的最后,这样多次下来,前面就是最近没有被访问的元素,在实现、LRU算法时,当双向链表中的节点数达到最大值时,将前面的元素删去即可,因为前面的元素是最近最少使用的),否则什么也不做。
再来看addEntry方法:

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//覆写HashMap中的addEntry方法,LinkedHashmap并没有覆写HashMap中的put方法,  
//而是覆写了put方法所调用的addEntry方法和recordAccess方法,
//put方法在插入的key已存在的情况下,会调用recordAccess方法,
//在插入的key不存在的情况下,要调用addEntry插入新的Entry
void addEntry(int hash, K key, V value, int bucketIndex) {
//创建新的Entry,并插入到LinkedHashMap中
createEntry(hash, key, value, bucketIndex);

//双向链表的第一个有效节点(header后的那个节点)为近期最少使用的节点
Entry<K,V> eldest = header.after;
//如果有必要,则删除掉该近期最少使用的节点,
//这要看对removeEldestEntry的覆写,由于默认为false,因此默认是不做任何处理的。
if (removeEldestEntry(eldest)) {
removeEntryForKey(eldest.key);
} else {
//扩容到原来的2倍
if (size >= threshold)
resize(2 * table.length);
}
}

void createEntry(int hash, K key, V value, int bucketIndex) {
//创建新的Entry,并将其插入到数组对应槽的单链表的头结点处,这点与HashMap中相同
HashMap.Entry<K,V> old = table[bucketIndex];
Entry<K,V> e = new Entry<K,V>(hash, key, value, old);
table[bucketIndex] = e;
//每次插入Entry时,都将其移到双向链表的尾部,
//这便会按照Entry插入LinkedHashMap的先后顺序来迭代元素,
//同时,新put进来的Entry是最近访问的Entry,把其放在链表末尾 ,符合LRU算法的实现
e.addBefore(header);
size++;
}

同样是将新的Entry插入到table中对应槽所对应单链表的头结点中,但可以看出,在createEntry中,同样把新put进来的Entry插入到了双向链表的尾部,从插入顺序的层面来说,新的Entry插入到双向链表的尾部,可以实现按照插入的先后顺序来迭代Entry,而从访问顺序的层面来说,新put进来的Entry又是最近访问的Entry,也应该将其放在双向链表的尾部。

上面还有个removeEldestEntry方法,该方法如下:
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//该方法是用来被覆写的,一般如果用LinkedHashmap实现LRU算法,就要覆写该方法,  
//比如可以将该方法覆写为如果设定的内存已满,则返回true,这样当再次向LinkedHashMap中put
//Entry时,在调用的addEntry方法中便会将近期最少使用的节点删除掉(header后的那个节点)。
protected boolean removeEldestEntry(Map.Entry<K,V> eldest) {
return false;
}
}

该方法默认返回false,我们一般在用LinkedHashMap实现LRU算法时,要覆写该方法,一般的实现是,当设定的内存(这里指节点个数)达到最大值时,返回true,这样put新的Entry(该Entry的key在哈希表中没有已经存在)时,就会调用removeEntryForKey方法,将最近最少使用的节点删除(head后面的那个节点,实际上是最近没有使用)。
6、LinkedHashMap覆写了HashMap的get方法:

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//覆写HashMap中的get方法,通过getEntry方法获取Entry对象。  
//注意这里的recordAccess方法,
//如果链表中元素的排序规则是按照插入的先后顺序排序的话,该方法什么也不做,
//如果链表中元素的排序规则是按照访问的先后顺序排序的话,则将e移到链表的末尾处。
public V get(Object key) {
Entry<K,V> e = (Entry<K,V>)getEntry(key);
if (e == null)
return null;
e.recordAccess(this);
return e.value;
}

先取得Entry,如果不为null,一样调用recordAccess方法,上面已经说得很清楚,这里不在多解释了。

7、最后说说LinkedHashMap是如何实现LRU的。首先,当accessOrder为true时,才会开启按访问顺序排序的模式,才能用来实现LRU算法。我们可以看到,无论是put方法还是get方法,都会导致目标Entry成为最近访问的Entry,因此便把该Entry加入到了双向链表的末尾(get方法通过调用recordAccess方法来实现,put方法在覆盖已有key的情况下,也是通过调用recordAccess方法来实现,在插入新的Entry时,则是通过createEntry中的addBefore方法来实现),这样便把最近使用了的Entry放入到了双向链表的后面,多次操作后,双向链表前面的Entry便是最近没有使用的,这样当节点个数满的时候,删除的最前面的Entry(head后面的那个Entry)便是最近最少使用的Entry。