Java集合0.1

List:
ArrayList
LinkedList

ArrayList

ArrayList是基于数组实现的,是一个动态数组,其容量能自动增长,类似于C语言中的动态申请内存,动态增长内存。

  • ArrayList不是线程安全的,只能用在单线程环境下,多线程环境下可以考虑用Collections.synchronizedList(List l)函数返回一个线程安全的ArrayList类,也可以使用concurrent并发包下的CopyOnWriteArrayList类。
  • ArrayList实现了Serializable接口,因此它支持序列化,能够通过序列化传输,实现了RandomAccess接口,支持快速随机访问,实际上就是通过下标序号进行快速访问,实现了Cloneable接口,能被克隆。

ArrayList源码(java version “1.8.0_102”)

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package java.util;

import java.util.function.Consumer;
import java.util.function.Predicate;
import java.util.function.UnaryOperator;

public class ArrayList<E> extends AbstractList<E>
implements List<E>, RandomAccess, Cloneable, java.io.Serializable
{
private static final long serialVersionUID = 8683452581122892189L;

/**
* Default initial capacity.
*/
private static final int DEFAULT_CAPACITY = 10;

/**
* Shared empty array instance used for empty instances.
*/
private static final Object[] EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA = {};

/**
* Shared empty array instance used for default sized empty instances. We
* distinguish this from EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA to know how much to inflate when
* first element is added.
*/
private static final Object[] DEFAULTCAPACITY_EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA = {};

/**
* The array buffer into which the elements of the ArrayList are stored.
* The capacity of the ArrayList is the length of this array buffer. Any
* empty ArrayList with elementData == DEFAULTCAPACITY_EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA
* will be expanded to DEFAULT_CAPACITY when the first element is added.
*/
transient Object[] elementData; // non-private to simplify nested class access

/**
* The size of the ArrayList (the number of elements it contains).
*
* @serial
*/
private int size;

/**
* Constructs an empty list with the specified initial capacity.
*
* @param initialCapacity the initial capacity of the list
* @throws IllegalArgumentException if the specified initial capacity
* is negative
*/
public ArrayList(int initialCapacity) {
if (initialCapacity > 0) {
this.elementData = new Object[initialCapacity];
} else if (initialCapacity == 0) {
this.elementData = EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA;
} else {
throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal Capacity: "+
initialCapacity);
}
}

/**
* Constructs an empty list with an initial capacity of ten.
*/
public ArrayList() {
this.elementData = DEFAULTCAPACITY_EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA;
}

/**
* Constructs a list containing the elements of the specified
* collection, in the order they are returned by the collection's
* iterator.
*
* @param c the collection whose elements are to be placed into this list
* @throws NullPointerException if the specified collection is null
*/
public ArrayList(Collection<? extends E> c) {
elementData = c.toArray();
if ((size = elementData.length) != 0) {
// c.toArray might (incorrectly) not return Object[] (see 6260652)
if (elementData.getClass() != Object[].class)
elementData = Arrays.copyOf(elementData, size, Object[].class);
} else {
// replace with empty array.
this.elementData = EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA;
}
}

/**
* Trims the capacity of this <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance to be the
* list's current size. An application can use this operation to minimize
* the storage of an <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance.
*/
public void trimToSize() {
modCount++;
if (size < elementData.length) {
elementData = (size == 0)
? EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA
: Arrays.copyOf(elementData, size);
}
}

/**
* Increases the capacity of this <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance, if
* necessary, to ensure that it can hold at least the number of elements
* specified by the minimum capacity argument.
*
* @param minCapacity the desired minimum capacity
*/
public void ensureCapacity(int minCapacity) {
int minExpand = (elementData != DEFAULTCAPACITY_EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA)
// any size if not default element table
? 0
// larger than default for default empty table. It's already
// supposed to be at default size.
: DEFAULT_CAPACITY;

if (minCapacity > minExpand) {
ensureExplicitCapacity(minCapacity);
}
}

private void ensureCapacityInternal(int minCapacity) {
if (elementData == DEFAULTCAPACITY_EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA) {
minCapacity = Math.max(DEFAULT_CAPACITY, minCapacity);
}

ensureExplicitCapacity(minCapacity);
}

private void ensureExplicitCapacity(int minCapacity) {
modCount++;

// overflow-conscious code
if (minCapacity - elementData.length > 0)
grow(minCapacity);
}

/**
* The maximum size of array to allocate.
* Some VMs reserve some header words in an array.
* Attempts to allocate larger arrays may result in
* OutOfMemoryError: Requested array size exceeds VM limit
*/
private static final int MAX_ARRAY_SIZE = Integer.MAX_VALUE - 8;

/**
* Increases the capacity to ensure that it can hold at least the
* number of elements specified by the minimum capacity argument.
*
* @param minCapacity the desired minimum capacity
*/
private void grow(int minCapacity) {
// overflow-conscious code
int oldCapacity = elementData.length;
int newCapacity = oldCapacity + (oldCapacity >> 1);
if (newCapacity - minCapacity < 0)
newCapacity = minCapacity;
if (newCapacity - MAX_ARRAY_SIZE > 0)
newCapacity = hugeCapacity(minCapacity);
// minCapacity is usually close to size, so this is a win:
elementData = Arrays.copyOf(elementData, newCapacity);
}

private static int hugeCapacity(int minCapacity) {
if (minCapacity < 0) // overflow
throw new OutOfMemoryError();
return (minCapacity > MAX_ARRAY_SIZE) ?
Integer.MAX_VALUE :
MAX_ARRAY_SIZE;
}

/**
* Returns the number of elements in this list.
*
* @return the number of elements in this list
*/
public int size() {
return size;
}

/**
* Returns <tt>true</tt> if this list contains no elements.
*
* @return <tt>true</tt> if this list contains no elements
*/
public boolean isEmpty() {
return size == 0;
}

/**
* Returns <tt>true</tt> if this list contains the specified element.
* More formally, returns <tt>true</tt> if and only if this list contains
* at least one element <tt>e</tt> such that
* <tt>(o==null&nbsp;?&nbsp;e==null&nbsp;:&nbsp;o.equals(e))</tt>.
*
* @param o element whose presence in this list is to be tested
* @return <tt>true</tt> if this list contains the specified element
*/
public boolean contains(Object o) {
return indexOf(o) >= 0;
}

/**
* Returns the index of the first occurrence of the specified element
* in this list, or -1 if this list does not contain the element.
* More formally, returns the lowest index <tt>i</tt> such that
* <tt>(o==null&nbsp;?&nbsp;get(i)==null&nbsp;:&nbsp;o.equals(get(i)))</tt>,
* or -1 if there is no such index.
*/
public int indexOf(Object o) {
if (o == null) {
for (int i = 0; i < size; i++)
if (elementData[i]==null)
return i;
} else {
for (int i = 0; i < size; i++)
if (o.equals(elementData[i]))
return i;
}
return -1;
}

/**
* Returns the index of the last occurrence of the specified element
* in this list, or -1 if this list does not contain the element.
* More formally, returns the highest index <tt>i</tt> such that
* <tt>(o==null&nbsp;?&nbsp;get(i)==null&nbsp;:&nbsp;o.equals(get(i)))</tt>,
* or -1 if there is no such index.
*/
public int lastIndexOf(Object o) {
if (o == null) {
for (int i = size-1; i >= 0; i--)
if (elementData[i]==null)
return i;
} else {
for (int i = size-1; i >= 0; i--)
if (o.equals(elementData[i]))
return i;
}
return -1;
}

/**
* Returns a shallow copy of this <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance. (The
* elements themselves are not copied.)
*
* @return a clone of this <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance
*/
public Object clone() {
try {
ArrayList<?> v = (ArrayList<?>) super.clone();
v.elementData = Arrays.copyOf(elementData, size);
v.modCount = 0;
return v;
} catch (CloneNotSupportedException e) {
// this shouldn't happen, since we are Cloneable
throw new InternalError(e);
}
}

/**
* Returns an array containing all of the elements in this list
* in proper sequence (from first to last element).
*
* <p>The returned array will be "safe" in that no references to it are
* maintained by this list. (In other words, this method must allocate
* a new array). The caller is thus free to modify the returned array.
*
* <p>This method acts as bridge between array-based and collection-based
* APIs.
*
* @return an array containing all of the elements in this list in
* proper sequence
*/
public Object[] toArray() {
return Arrays.copyOf(elementData, size);
}

/**
* Returns an array containing all of the elements in this list in proper
* sequence (from first to last element); the runtime type of the returned
* array is that of the specified array. If the list fits in the
* specified array, it is returned therein. Otherwise, a new array is
* allocated with the runtime type of the specified array and the size of
* this list.
*
* <p>If the list fits in the specified array with room to spare
* (i.e., the array has more elements than the list), the element in
* the array immediately following the end of the collection is set to
* <tt>null</tt>. (This is useful in determining the length of the
* list <i>only</i> if the caller knows that the list does not contain
* any null elements.)
*
* @param a the array into which the elements of the list are to
* be stored, if it is big enough; otherwise, a new array of the
* same runtime type is allocated for this purpose.
* @return an array containing the elements of the list
* @throws ArrayStoreException if the runtime type of the specified array
* is not a supertype of the runtime type of every element in
* this list
* @throws NullPointerException if the specified array is null
*/
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public <T> T[] toArray(T[] a) {
if (a.length < size)
// Make a new array of a's runtime type, but my contents:
return (T[]) Arrays.copyOf(elementData, size, a.getClass());
System.arraycopy(elementData, 0, a, 0, size);
if (a.length > size)
a[size] = null;
return a;
}

// Positional Access Operations

@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
E elementData(int index) {
return (E) elementData[index];
}

/**
* Returns the element at the specified position in this list.
*
* @param index index of the element to return
* @return the element at the specified position in this list
* @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
*/
public E get(int index) {
rangeCheck(index);

return elementData(index);
}

/**
* Replaces the element at the specified position in this list with
* the specified element.
*
* @param index index of the element to replace
* @param element element to be stored at the specified position
* @return the element previously at the specified position
* @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
*/
public E set(int index, E element) {
rangeCheck(index);

E oldValue = elementData(index);
elementData[index] = element;
return oldValue;
}

/**
* Appends the specified element to the end of this list.
*
* @param e element to be appended to this list
* @return <tt>true</tt> (as specified by {@link Collection#add})
*/
public boolean add(E e) {
ensureCapacityInternal(size + 1); // Increments modCount!!
elementData[size++] = e;
return true;
}

/**
* Inserts the specified element at the specified position in this
* list. Shifts the element currently at that position (if any) and
* any subsequent elements to the right (adds one to their indices).
*
* @param index index at which the specified element is to be inserted
* @param element element to be inserted
* @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
*/
public void add(int index, E element) {
rangeCheckForAdd(index);

ensureCapacityInternal(size + 1); // Increments modCount!!
System.arraycopy(elementData, index, elementData, index + 1,
size - index);
elementData[index] = element;
size++;
}

/**
* Removes the element at the specified position in this list.
* Shifts any subsequent elements to the left (subtracts one from their
* indices).
*
* @param index the index of the element to be removed
* @return the element that was removed from the list
* @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
*/
public E remove(int index) {
rangeCheck(index);

modCount++;
E oldValue = elementData(index);

int numMoved = size - index - 1;
if (numMoved > 0)
System.arraycopy(elementData, index+1, elementData, index,
numMoved);
elementData[--size] = null; // clear to let GC do its work

return oldValue;
}

/**
* Removes the first occurrence of the specified element from this list,
* if it is present. If the list does not contain the element, it is
* unchanged. More formally, removes the element with the lowest index
* <tt>i</tt> such that
* <tt>(o==null&nbsp;?&nbsp;get(i)==null&nbsp;:&nbsp;o.equals(get(i)))</tt>
* (if such an element exists). Returns <tt>true</tt> if this list
* contained the specified element (or equivalently, if this list
* changed as a result of the call).
*
* @param o element to be removed from this list, if present
* @return <tt>true</tt> if this list contained the specified element
*/
public boolean remove(Object o) {
if (o == null) {
for (int index = 0; index < size; index++)
if (elementData[index] == null) {
fastRemove(index);
return true;
}
} else {
for (int index = 0; index < size; index++)
if (o.equals(elementData[index])) {
fastRemove(index);
return true;
}
}
return false;
}

/*
* Private remove method that skips bounds checking and does not
* return the value removed.
*/
private void fastRemove(int index) {
modCount++;
int numMoved = size - index - 1;
if (numMoved > 0)
System.arraycopy(elementData, index+1, elementData, index,
numMoved);
elementData[--size] = null; // clear to let GC do its work
}

/**
* Removes all of the elements from this list. The list will
* be empty after this call returns.
*/
public void clear() {
modCount++;

// clear to let GC do its work
for (int i = 0; i < size; i++)
elementData[i] = null;

size = 0;
}

/**
* Appends all of the elements in the specified collection to the end of
* this list, in the order that they are returned by the
* specified collection's Iterator. The behavior of this operation is
* undefined if the specified collection is modified while the operation
* is in progress. (This implies that the behavior of this call is
* undefined if the specified collection is this list, and this
* list is nonempty.)
*
* @param c collection containing elements to be added to this list
* @return <tt>true</tt> if this list changed as a result of the call
* @throws NullPointerException if the specified collection is null
*/
public boolean addAll(Collection<? extends E> c) {
Object[] a = c.toArray();
int numNew = a.length;
ensureCapacityInternal(size + numNew); // Increments modCount
System.arraycopy(a, 0, elementData, size, numNew);
size += numNew;
return numNew != 0;
}

/**
* Inserts all of the elements in the specified collection into this
* list, starting at the specified position. Shifts the element
* currently at that position (if any) and any subsequent elements to
* the right (increases their indices). The new elements will appear
* in the list in the order that they are returned by the
* specified collection's iterator.
*
* @param index index at which to insert the first element from the
* specified collection
* @param c collection containing elements to be added to this list
* @return <tt>true</tt> if this list changed as a result of the call
* @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
* @throws NullPointerException if the specified collection is null
*/
public boolean addAll(int index, Collection<? extends E> c) {
rangeCheckForAdd(index);

Object[] a = c.toArray();
int numNew = a.length;
ensureCapacityInternal(size + numNew); // Increments modCount

int numMoved = size - index;
if (numMoved > 0)
System.arraycopy(elementData, index, elementData, index + numNew,
numMoved);

System.arraycopy(a, 0, elementData, index, numNew);
size += numNew;
return numNew != 0;
}

/**
* Removes from this list all of the elements whose index is between
* {@code fromIndex}, inclusive, and {@code toIndex}, exclusive.
* Shifts any succeeding elements to the left (reduces their index).
* This call shortens the list by {@code (toIndex - fromIndex)} elements.
* (If {@code toIndex==fromIndex}, this operation has no effect.)
*
* @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException if {@code fromIndex} or
* {@code toIndex} is out of range
* ({@code fromIndex < 0 ||
* fromIndex >= size() ||
* toIndex > size() ||
* toIndex < fromIndex})
*/
protected void removeRange(int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
modCount++;
int numMoved = size - toIndex;
System.arraycopy(elementData, toIndex, elementData, fromIndex,
numMoved);

// clear to let GC do its work
int newSize = size - (toIndex-fromIndex);
for (int i = newSize; i < size; i++) {
elementData[i] = null;
}
size = newSize;
}

/**
* Checks if the given index is in range. If not, throws an appropriate
* runtime exception. This method does *not* check if the index is
* negative: It is always used immediately prior to an array access,
* which throws an ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException if index is negative.
*/
private void rangeCheck(int index) {
if (index >= size)
throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException(outOfBoundsMsg(index));
}

/**
* A version of rangeCheck used by add and addAll.
*/
private void rangeCheckForAdd(int index) {
if (index > size || index < 0)
throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException(outOfBoundsMsg(index));
}

/**
* Constructs an IndexOutOfBoundsException detail message.
* Of the many possible refactorings of the error handling code,
* this "outlining" performs best with both server and client VMs.
*/
private String outOfBoundsMsg(int index) {
return "Index: "+index+", Size: "+size;
}

/**
* Removes from this list all of its elements that are contained in the
* specified collection.
*
* @param c collection containing elements to be removed from this list
* @return {@code true} if this list changed as a result of the call
* @throws ClassCastException if the class of an element of this list
* is incompatible with the specified collection
* (<a href="Collection.html#optional-restrictions">optional</a>)
* @throws NullPointerException if this list contains a null element and the
* specified collection does not permit null elements
* (<a href="Collection.html#optional-restrictions">optional</a>),
* or if the specified collection is null
* @see Collection#contains(Object)
*/
public boolean removeAll(Collection<?> c) {
Objects.requireNonNull(c);
return batchRemove(c, false);
}

/**
* Retains only the elements in this list that are contained in the
* specified collection. In other words, removes from this list all
* of its elements that are not contained in the specified collection.
*
* @param c collection containing elements to be retained in this list
* @return {@code true} if this list changed as a result of the call
* @throws ClassCastException if the class of an element of this list
* is incompatible with the specified collection
* (<a href="Collection.html#optional-restrictions">optional</a>)
* @throws NullPointerException if this list contains a null element and the
* specified collection does not permit null elements
* (<a href="Collection.html#optional-restrictions">optional</a>),
* or if the specified collection is null
* @see Collection#contains(Object)
*/
public boolean retainAll(Collection<?> c) {
Objects.requireNonNull(c);
return batchRemove(c, true);
}

private boolean batchRemove(Collection<?> c, boolean complement) {
final Object[] elementData = this.elementData;
int r = 0, w = 0;
boolean modified = false;
try {
for (; r < size; r++)
if (c.contains(elementData[r]) == complement)
elementData[w++] = elementData[r];
} finally {
// Preserve behavioral compatibility with AbstractCollection,
// even if c.contains() throws.
if (r != size) {
System.arraycopy(elementData, r,
elementData, w,
size - r);
w += size - r;
}
if (w != size) {
// clear to let GC do its work
for (int i = w; i < size; i++)
elementData[i] = null;
modCount += size - w;
size = w;
modified = true;
}
}
return modified;
}

/**
* Save the state of the <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance to a stream (that
* is, serialize it).
*
* @serialData The length of the array backing the <tt>ArrayList</tt>
* instance is emitted (int), followed by all of its elements
* (each an <tt>Object</tt>) in the proper order.
*/
private void writeObject(java.io.ObjectOutputStream s)
throws java.io.IOException{
// Write out element count, and any hidden stuff
int expectedModCount = modCount;
s.defaultWriteObject();

// Write out size as capacity for behavioural compatibility with clone()
s.writeInt(size);

// Write out all elements in the proper order.
for (int i=0; i<size; i++) {
s.writeObject(elementData[i]);
}

if (modCount != expectedModCount) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}

/**
* Reconstitute the <tt>ArrayList</tt> instance from a stream (that is,
* deserialize it).
*/
private void readObject(java.io.ObjectInputStream s)
throws java.io.IOException, ClassNotFoundException {
elementData = EMPTY_ELEMENTDATA;

// Read in size, and any hidden stuff
s.defaultReadObject();

// Read in capacity
s.readInt(); // ignored

if (size > 0) {
// be like clone(), allocate array based upon size not capacity
ensureCapacityInternal(size);

Object[] a = elementData;
// Read in all elements in the proper order.
for (int i=0; i<size; i++) {
a[i] = s.readObject();
}
}
}

/**
* Returns a list iterator over the elements in this list (in proper
* sequence), starting at the specified position in the list.
* The specified index indicates the first element that would be
* returned by an initial call to {@link ListIterator#next next}.
* An initial call to {@link ListIterator#previous previous} would
* return the element with the specified index minus one.
*
* <p>The returned list iterator is <a href="#fail-fast"><i>fail-fast</i></a>.
*
* @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
*/
public ListIterator<E> listIterator(int index) {
if (index < 0 || index > size)
throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException("Index: "+index);
return new ListItr(index);
}

/**
* Returns a list iterator over the elements in this list (in proper
* sequence).
*
* <p>The returned list iterator is <a href="#fail-fast"><i>fail-fast</i></a>.
*
* @see #listIterator(int)
*/
public ListIterator<E> listIterator() {
return new ListItr(0);
}

/**
* Returns an iterator over the elements in this list in proper sequence.
*
* <p>The returned iterator is <a href="#fail-fast"><i>fail-fast</i></a>.
*
* @return an iterator over the elements in this list in proper sequence
*/
public Iterator<E> iterator() {
return new Itr();
}

/**
* An optimized version of AbstractList.Itr
*/
private class Itr implements Iterator<E> {
int cursor; // index of next element to return
int lastRet = -1; // index of last element returned; -1 if no such
int expectedModCount = modCount;

public boolean hasNext() {
return cursor != size;
}

@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public E next() {
checkForComodification();
int i = cursor;
if (i >= size)
throw new NoSuchElementException();
Object[] elementData = ArrayList.this.elementData;
if (i >= elementData.length)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
cursor = i + 1;
return (E) elementData[lastRet = i];
}

public void remove() {
if (lastRet < 0)
throw new IllegalStateException();
checkForComodification();

try {
ArrayList.this.remove(lastRet);
cursor = lastRet;
lastRet = -1;
expectedModCount = modCount;
} catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException ex) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}

@Override
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public void forEachRemaining(Consumer<? super E> consumer) {
Objects.requireNonNull(consumer);
final int size = ArrayList.this.size;
int i = cursor;
if (i >= size) {
return;
}
final Object[] elementData = ArrayList.this.elementData;
if (i >= elementData.length) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
while (i != size && modCount == expectedModCount) {
consumer.accept((E) elementData[i++]);
}
// update once at end of iteration to reduce heap write traffic
cursor = i;
lastRet = i - 1;
checkForComodification();
}

final void checkForComodification() {
if (modCount != expectedModCount)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}

/**
* An optimized version of AbstractList.ListItr
*/
private class ListItr extends Itr implements ListIterator<E> {
ListItr(int index) {
super();
cursor = index;
}

public boolean hasPrevious() {
return cursor != 0;
}

public int nextIndex() {
return cursor;
}

public int previousIndex() {
return cursor - 1;
}

@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public E previous() {
checkForComodification();
int i = cursor - 1;
if (i < 0)
throw new NoSuchElementException();
Object[] elementData = ArrayList.this.elementData;
if (i >= elementData.length)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
cursor = i;
return (E) elementData[lastRet = i];
}

public void set(E e) {
if (lastRet < 0)
throw new IllegalStateException();
checkForComodification();

try {
ArrayList.this.set(lastRet, e);
} catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException ex) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}

public void add(E e) {
checkForComodification();

try {
int i = cursor;
ArrayList.this.add(i, e);
cursor = i + 1;
lastRet = -1;
expectedModCount = modCount;
} catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException ex) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}
}

/**
* Returns a view of the portion of this list between the specified
* {@code fromIndex}, inclusive, and {@code toIndex}, exclusive. (If
* {@code fromIndex} and {@code toIndex} are equal, the returned list is
* empty.) The returned list is backed by this list, so non-structural
* changes in the returned list are reflected in this list, and vice-versa.
* The returned list supports all of the optional list operations.
*
* <p>This method eliminates the need for explicit range operations (of
* the sort that commonly exist for arrays). Any operation that expects
* a list can be used as a range operation by passing a subList view
* instead of a whole list. For example, the following idiom
* removes a range of elements from a list:
* <pre>
* list.subList(from, to).clear();
* </pre>
* Similar idioms may be constructed for {@link #indexOf(Object)} and
* {@link #lastIndexOf(Object)}, and all of the algorithms in the
* {@link Collections} class can be applied to a subList.
*
* <p>The semantics of the list returned by this method become undefined if
* the backing list (i.e., this list) is <i>structurally modified</i> in
* any way other than via the returned list. (Structural modifications are
* those that change the size of this list, or otherwise perturb it in such
* a fashion that iterations in progress may yield incorrect results.)
*
* @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
* @throws IllegalArgumentException {@inheritDoc}
*/
public List<E> subList(int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
subListRangeCheck(fromIndex, toIndex, size);
return new SubList(this, 0, fromIndex, toIndex);
}

static void subListRangeCheck(int fromIndex, int toIndex, int size) {
if (fromIndex < 0)
throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException("fromIndex = " + fromIndex);
if (toIndex > size)
throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException("toIndex = " + toIndex);
if (fromIndex > toIndex)
throw new IllegalArgumentException("fromIndex(" + fromIndex +
") > toIndex(" + toIndex + ")");
}

private class SubList extends AbstractList<E> implements RandomAccess {
private final AbstractList<E> parent;
private final int parentOffset;
private final int offset;
int size;

SubList(AbstractList<E> parent,
int offset, int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
this.parent = parent;
this.parentOffset = fromIndex;
this.offset = offset + fromIndex;
this.size = toIndex - fromIndex;
this.modCount = ArrayList.this.modCount;
}

public E set(int index, E e) {
rangeCheck(index);
checkForComodification();
E oldValue = ArrayList.this.elementData(offset + index);
ArrayList.this.elementData[offset + index] = e;
return oldValue;
}

public E get(int index) {
rangeCheck(index);
checkForComodification();
return ArrayList.this.elementData(offset + index);
}

public int size() {
checkForComodification();
return this.size;
}

public void add(int index, E e) {
rangeCheckForAdd(index);
checkForComodification();
parent.add(parentOffset + index, e);
this.modCount = parent.modCount;
this.size++;
}

public E remove(int index) {
rangeCheck(index);
checkForComodification();
E result = parent.remove(parentOffset + index);
this.modCount = parent.modCount;
this.size--;
return result;
}

protected void removeRange(int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
checkForComodification();
parent.removeRange(parentOffset + fromIndex,
parentOffset + toIndex);
this.modCount = parent.modCount;
this.size -= toIndex - fromIndex;
}

public boolean addAll(Collection<? extends E> c) {
return addAll(this.size, c);
}

public boolean addAll(int index, Collection<? extends E> c) {
rangeCheckForAdd(index);
int cSize = c.size();
if (cSize==0)
return false;

checkForComodification();
parent.addAll(parentOffset + index, c);
this.modCount = parent.modCount;
this.size += cSize;
return true;
}

public Iterator<E> iterator() {
return listIterator();
}

public ListIterator<E> listIterator(final int index) {
checkForComodification();
rangeCheckForAdd(index);
final int offset = this.offset;

return new ListIterator<E>() {
int cursor = index;
int lastRet = -1;
int expectedModCount = ArrayList.this.modCount;

public boolean hasNext() {
return cursor != SubList.this.size;
}

@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public E next() {
checkForComodification();
int i = cursor;
if (i >= SubList.this.size)
throw new NoSuchElementException();
Object[] elementData = ArrayList.this.elementData;
if (offset + i >= elementData.length)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
cursor = i + 1;
return (E) elementData[offset + (lastRet = i)];
}

public boolean hasPrevious() {
return cursor != 0;
}

@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public E previous() {
checkForComodification();
int i = cursor - 1;
if (i < 0)
throw new NoSuchElementException();
Object[] elementData = ArrayList.this.elementData;
if (offset + i >= elementData.length)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
cursor = i;
return (E) elementData[offset + (lastRet = i)];
}

@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public void forEachRemaining(Consumer<? super E> consumer) {
Objects.requireNonNull(consumer);
final int size = SubList.this.size;
int i = cursor;
if (i >= size) {
return;
}
final Object[] elementData = ArrayList.this.elementData;
if (offset + i >= elementData.length) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
while (i != size && modCount == expectedModCount) {
consumer.accept((E) elementData[offset + (i++)]);
}
// update once at end of iteration to reduce heap write traffic
lastRet = cursor = i;
checkForComodification();
}

public int nextIndex() {
return cursor;
}

public int previousIndex() {
return cursor - 1;
}

public void remove() {
if (lastRet < 0)
throw new IllegalStateException();
checkForComodification();

try {
SubList.this.remove(lastRet);
cursor = lastRet;
lastRet = -1;
expectedModCount = ArrayList.this.modCount;
} catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException ex) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}

public void set(E e) {
if (lastRet < 0)
throw new IllegalStateException();
checkForComodification();

try {
ArrayList.this.set(offset + lastRet, e);
} catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException ex) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}

public void add(E e) {
checkForComodification();

try {
int i = cursor;
SubList.this.add(i, e);
cursor = i + 1;
lastRet = -1;
expectedModCount = ArrayList.this.modCount;
} catch (IndexOutOfBoundsException ex) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}

final void checkForComodification() {
if (expectedModCount != ArrayList.this.modCount)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
};
}

public List<E> subList(int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
subListRangeCheck(fromIndex, toIndex, size);
return new SubList(this, offset, fromIndex, toIndex);
}

private void rangeCheck(int index) {
if (index < 0 || index >= this.size)
throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException(outOfBoundsMsg(index));
}

private void rangeCheckForAdd(int index) {
if (index < 0 || index > this.size)
throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException(outOfBoundsMsg(index));
}

private String outOfBoundsMsg(int index) {
return "Index: "+index+", Size: "+this.size;
}

private void checkForComodification() {
if (ArrayList.this.modCount != this.modCount)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}

public Spliterator<E> spliterator() {
checkForComodification();
return new ArrayListSpliterator<E>(ArrayList.this, offset,
offset + this.size, this.modCount);
}
}

@Override
public void forEach(Consumer<? super E> action) {
Objects.requireNonNull(action);
final int expectedModCount = modCount;
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
final E[] elementData = (E[]) this.elementData;
final int size = this.size;
for (int i=0; modCount == expectedModCount && i < size; i++) {
action.accept(elementData[i]);
}
if (modCount != expectedModCount) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}

/**
* Creates a <em><a href="Spliterator.html#binding">late-binding</a></em>
* and <em>fail-fast</em> {@link Spliterator} over the elements in this
* list.
*
* <p>The {@code Spliterator} reports {@link Spliterator#SIZED},
* {@link Spliterator#SUBSIZED}, and {@link Spliterator#ORDERED}.
* Overriding implementations should document the reporting of additional
* characteristic values.
*
* @return a {@code Spliterator} over the elements in this list
* @since 1.8
*/
@Override
public Spliterator<E> spliterator() {
return new ArrayListSpliterator<>(this, 0, -1, 0);
}

/** Index-based split-by-two, lazily initialized Spliterator */
static final class ArrayListSpliterator<E> implements Spliterator<E> {

/*
* If ArrayLists were immutable, or structurally immutable (no
* adds, removes, etc), we could implement their spliterators
* with Arrays.spliterator. Instead we detect as much
* interference during traversal as practical without
* sacrificing much performance. We rely primarily on
* modCounts. These are not guaranteed to detect concurrency
* violations, and are sometimes overly conservative about
* within-thread interference, but detect enough problems to
* be worthwhile in practice. To carry this out, we (1) lazily
* initialize fence and expectedModCount until the latest
* point that we need to commit to the state we are checking
* against; thus improving precision. (This doesn't apply to
* SubLists, that create spliterators with current non-lazy
* values). (2) We perform only a single
* ConcurrentModificationException check at the end of forEach
* (the most performance-sensitive method). When using forEach
* (as opposed to iterators), we can normally only detect
* interference after actions, not before. Further
* CME-triggering checks apply to all other possible
* violations of assumptions for example null or too-small
* elementData array given its size(), that could only have
* occurred due to interference. This allows the inner loop
* of forEach to run without any further checks, and
* simplifies lambda-resolution. While this does entail a
* number of checks, note that in the common case of
* list.stream().forEach(a), no checks or other computation
* occur anywhere other than inside forEach itself. The other
* less-often-used methods cannot take advantage of most of
* these streamlinings.
*/

private final ArrayList<E> list;
private int index; // current index, modified on advance/split
private int fence; // -1 until used; then one past last index
private int expectedModCount; // initialized when fence set

/** Create new spliterator covering the given range */
ArrayListSpliterator(ArrayList<E> list, int origin, int fence,
int expectedModCount) {
this.list = list; // OK if null unless traversed
this.index = origin;
this.fence = fence;
this.expectedModCount = expectedModCount;
}

private int getFence() { // initialize fence to size on first use
int hi; // (a specialized variant appears in method forEach)
ArrayList<E> lst;
if ((hi = fence) < 0) {
if ((lst = list) == null)
hi = fence = 0;
else {
expectedModCount = lst.modCount;
hi = fence = lst.size;
}
}
return hi;
}

public ArrayListSpliterator<E> trySplit() {
int hi = getFence(), lo = index, mid = (lo + hi) >>> 1;
return (lo >= mid) ? null : // divide range in half unless too small
new ArrayListSpliterator<E>(list, lo, index = mid,
expectedModCount);
}

public boolean tryAdvance(Consumer<? super E> action) {
if (action == null)
throw new NullPointerException();
int hi = getFence(), i = index;
if (i < hi) {
index = i + 1;
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked") E e = (E)list.elementData[i];
action.accept(e);
if (list.modCount != expectedModCount)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
return true;
}
return false;
}

public void forEachRemaining(Consumer<? super E> action) {
int i, hi, mc; // hoist accesses and checks from loop
ArrayList<E> lst; Object[] a;
if (action == null)
throw new NullPointerException();
if ((lst = list) != null && (a = lst.elementData) != null) {
if ((hi = fence) < 0) {
mc = lst.modCount;
hi = lst.size;
}
else
mc = expectedModCount;
if ((i = index) >= 0 && (index = hi) <= a.length) {
for (; i < hi; ++i) {
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked") E e = (E) a[i];
action.accept(e);
}
if (lst.modCount == mc)
return;
}
}
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}

public long estimateSize() {
return (long) (getFence() - index);
}

public int characteristics() {
return Spliterator.ORDERED | Spliterator.SIZED | Spliterator.SUBSIZED;
}
}

@Override
public boolean removeIf(Predicate<? super E> filter) {
Objects.requireNonNull(filter);
// figure out which elements are to be removed
// any exception thrown from the filter predicate at this stage
// will leave the collection unmodified
int removeCount = 0;
final BitSet removeSet = new BitSet(size);
final int expectedModCount = modCount;
final int size = this.size;
for (int i=0; modCount == expectedModCount && i < size; i++) {
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
final E element = (E) elementData[i];
if (filter.test(element)) {
removeSet.set(i);
removeCount++;
}
}
if (modCount != expectedModCount) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}

// shift surviving elements left over the spaces left by removed elements
final boolean anyToRemove = removeCount > 0;
if (anyToRemove) {
final int newSize = size - removeCount;
for (int i=0, j=0; (i < size) && (j < newSize); i++, j++) {
i = removeSet.nextClearBit(i);
elementData[j] = elementData[i];
}
for (int k=newSize; k < size; k++) {
elementData[k] = null; // Let gc do its work
}
this.size = newSize;
if (modCount != expectedModCount) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
modCount++;
}

return anyToRemove;
}

@Override
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public void replaceAll(UnaryOperator<E> operator) {
Objects.requireNonNull(operator);
final int expectedModCount = modCount;
final int size = this.size;
for (int i=0; modCount == expectedModCount && i < size; i++) {
elementData[i] = operator.apply((E) elementData[i]);
}
if (modCount != expectedModCount) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
modCount++;
}

@Override
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public void sort(Comparator<? super E> c) {
final int expectedModCount = modCount;
Arrays.sort((E[]) elementData, 0, size, c);
if (modCount != expectedModCount) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
modCount++;
}
}

关于ArrayList的源码,给出几点比较重要的总结:

1、注意其三个不同的构造方法。无参构造方法构造的ArrayList的容量默认为10,带有Collection参数的构造方法,将Collection转化为数组赋给ArrayList的实现数组elementData。

2、注意扩充容量的方法ensureCapacity。ArrayList在每次增加元素(可能是1个,也可能是一组)时,都要调用该方法来确保足够的容量。当容量不足以容纳当前的元素个数时,就设置新的容量为旧的容量的1.5倍加1,如果设置后的新容量还不够,则直接新容量设置为传入的参数(也就是所需的容量),而后用Arrays.copyof()方法将元素拷贝到新的数组(详见下面的第3点)。从中可以看出,当容量不够时,每次增加元素,都要将原来的元素拷贝到一个新的数组中,非常之耗时,也因此建议在事先能确定元素数量的情况下,才使用ArrayList,否则建议使用LinkedList。

3、ArrayList的实现中大量地调用了Arrays.copyof()和System.arraycopy()方法。我们有必要对这两个方法的实现做下深入的了解。

首先来看Arrays.copyof()方法。它有很多个重载的方法,但实现思路都是一样的,我们来看泛型版本的源码:
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public static <T> T[] copyOf(T[] original, int newLength) {  
return (T[]) copyOf(original, newLength, original.getClass());
}

很明显调用了另一个copyof方法,该方法有三个参数,最后一个参数指明要转换的数据的类型,其源码如下:

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public static <T,U> T[] copyOf(U[] original, int newLength, Class<? extends T[]> newType) {  
T[] copy = ((Object)newType == (Object)Object[].class)
? (T[]) new Object[newLength]
: (T[]) Array.newInstance(newType.getComponentType(), newLength);
System.arraycopy(original, 0, copy, 0,
Math.min(original.length, newLength));
return copy;
}

这里可以很明显地看出,该方法实际上是在其内部又创建了一个长度为newlength的数组,调用System.arraycopy()方法,将原来数组中的元素复制到了新的数组中。

下面来看System.arraycopy()方法。该方法被标记了native,调用了系统的C/C++代码,在JDK中是看不到的,但在openJDK中可以看到其源码。该函数实际上最终调用了C语言的memmove()函数,因此它可以保证同一个数组内元素的正确复制和移动,比一般的复制方法的实现效率要高很多,很适合用来批量处理数组。Java强烈推荐在复制大量数组元素时用该方法,以取得更高的效率。

4、注意ArrayList的两个转化为静态数组的toArray方法。

第一个,Object[] toArray()方法。该方法有可能会抛出java.lang.ClassCastException异常,如果直接用向下转型的方法,将整个ArrayList集合转变为指定类型的Array数组,便会抛出该异常,而如果转化为Array数组时不向下转型,而是将每个元素向下转型,则不会抛出该异常,显然对数组中的元素一个个进行向下转型,效率不高,且不太方便。

第二个,<T> T[] toArray(T[] a)方法。该方法可以直接将ArrayList转换得到的Array进行整体向下转型(转型其实是在该方法的源码中实现的),且从该方法的源码中可以看出,参数a的大小不足时,内部会调用Arrays.copyOf方法,该方法内部创建一个新的数组返回,因此对该方法的常用形式如下:
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public static Integer[] vectorToArray2(ArrayList<Integer> v) {    
Integer[] newText = (Integer[])v.toArray(new Integer[0]);
return newText;
}

5、ArrayList基于数组实现,可以通过下标索引直接查找到指定位置的元素,因此查找效率高,但每次插入或删除元素,就要大量地移动元素,插入删除元素的效率低。

6、在查找给定元素索引值等的方法中,源码都将该元素的值分为null和不为null两种情况处理,ArrayList中允许元素为null。

LinkedList

LinkedList是基于双向循环链表(从源码中可以很容易看出)实现的,除了可以当做链表来操作外,它还可以当做栈、队列和双端队列来使用。

LinkedList同样是非线程安全的,只在单线程下适合使用。

LinkedList实现了Serializable接口,因此它支持序列化,能够通过序列化传输,实现了Cloneable接口,能被克隆。

LinkedList的源码

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package java.util;

import java.util.function.Consumer;


public class LinkedList<E>
extends AbstractSequentialList<E>
implements List<E>, Deque<E>, Cloneable, java.io.Serializable
{
transient int size = 0;

/**
* Pointer to first node.
* Invariant: (first == null && last == null) ||
* (first.prev == null && first.item != null)
*/
transient Node<E> first;

/**
* Pointer to last node.
* Invariant: (first == null && last == null) ||
* (last.next == null && last.item != null)
*/
transient Node<E> last;

/**
* Constructs an empty list.
*/
public LinkedList() {
}

/**
* Constructs a list containing the elements of the specified
* collection, in the order they are returned by the collection's
* iterator.
*
* @param c the collection whose elements are to be placed into this list
* @throws NullPointerException if the specified collection is null
*/
public LinkedList(Collection<? extends E> c) {
this();
addAll(c);
}

/**
* Links e as first element.
*/
private void linkFirst(E e) {
final Node<E> f = first;
final Node<E> newNode = new Node<>(null, e, f);
first = newNode;
if (f == null)
last = newNode;
else
f.prev = newNode;
size++;
modCount++;
}

/**
* Links e as last element.
*/
void linkLast(E e) {
final Node<E> l = last;
final Node<E> newNode = new Node<>(l, e, null);
last = newNode;
if (l == null)
first = newNode;
else
l.next = newNode;
size++;
modCount++;
}

/**
* Inserts element e before non-null Node succ.
*/
void linkBefore(E e, Node<E> succ) {
// assert succ != null;
final Node<E> pred = succ.prev;
final Node<E> newNode = new Node<>(pred, e, succ);
succ.prev = newNode;
if (pred == null)
first = newNode;
else
pred.next = newNode;
size++;
modCount++;
}

/**
* Unlinks non-null first node f.
*/
private E unlinkFirst(Node<E> f) {
// assert f == first && f != null;
final E element = f.item;
final Node<E> next = f.next;
f.item = null;
f.next = null; // help GC
first = next;
if (next == null)
last = null;
else
next.prev = null;
size--;
modCount++;
return element;
}

/**
* Unlinks non-null last node l.
*/
private E unlinkLast(Node<E> l) {
// assert l == last && l != null;
final E element = l.item;
final Node<E> prev = l.prev;
l.item = null;
l.prev = null; // help GC
last = prev;
if (prev == null)
first = null;
else
prev.next = null;
size--;
modCount++;
return element;
}

/**
* Unlinks non-null node x.
*/
E unlink(Node<E> x) {
// assert x != null;
final E element = x.item;
final Node<E> next = x.next;
final Node<E> prev = x.prev;

if (prev == null) {
first = next;
} else {
prev.next = next;
x.prev = null;
}

if (next == null) {
last = prev;
} else {
next.prev = prev;
x.next = null;
}

x.item = null;
size--;
modCount++;
return element;
}

/**
* Returns the first element in this list.
*
* @return the first element in this list
* @throws NoSuchElementException if this list is empty
*/
public E getFirst() {
final Node<E> f = first;
if (f == null)
throw new NoSuchElementException();
return f.item;
}

/**
* Returns the last element in this list.
*
* @return the last element in this list
* @throws NoSuchElementException if this list is empty
*/
public E getLast() {
final Node<E> l = last;
if (l == null)
throw new NoSuchElementException();
return l.item;
}

/**
* Removes and returns the first element from this list.
*
* @return the first element from this list
* @throws NoSuchElementException if this list is empty
*/
public E removeFirst() {
final Node<E> f = first;
if (f == null)
throw new NoSuchElementException();
return unlinkFirst(f);
}

/**
* Removes and returns the last element from this list.
*
* @return the last element from this list
* @throws NoSuchElementException if this list is empty
*/
public E removeLast() {
final Node<E> l = last;
if (l == null)
throw new NoSuchElementException();
return unlinkLast(l);
}

/**
* Inserts the specified element at the beginning of this list.
*
* @param e the element to add
*/
public void addFirst(E e) {
linkFirst(e);
}

/**
* Appends the specified element to the end of this list.
*
* <p>This method is equivalent to {@link #add}.
*
* @param e the element to add
*/
public void addLast(E e) {
linkLast(e);
}

/**
* Returns {@code true} if this list contains the specified element.
* More formally, returns {@code true} if and only if this list contains
* at least one element {@code e} such that
* <tt>(o==null&nbsp;?&nbsp;e==null&nbsp;:&nbsp;o.equals(e))</tt>.
*
* @param o element whose presence in this list is to be tested
* @return {@code true} if this list contains the specified element
*/
public boolean contains(Object o) {
return indexOf(o) != -1;
}

/**
* Returns the number of elements in this list.
*
* @return the number of elements in this list
*/
public int size() {
return size;
}

/**
* Appends the specified element to the end of this list.
*
* <p>This method is equivalent to {@link #addLast}.
*
* @param e element to be appended to this list
* @return {@code true} (as specified by {@link Collection#add})
*/
public boolean add(E e) {
linkLast(e);
return true;
}

/**
* Removes the first occurrence of the specified element from this list,
* if it is present. If this list does not contain the element, it is
* unchanged. More formally, removes the element with the lowest index
* {@code i} such that
* <tt>(o==null&nbsp;?&nbsp;get(i)==null&nbsp;:&nbsp;o.equals(get(i)))</tt>
* (if such an element exists). Returns {@code true} if this list
* contained the specified element (or equivalently, if this list
* changed as a result of the call).
*
* @param o element to be removed from this list, if present
* @return {@code true} if this list contained the specified element
*/
public boolean remove(Object o) {
if (o == null) {
for (Node<E> x = first; x != null; x = x.next) {
if (x.item == null) {
unlink(x);
return true;
}
}
} else {
for (Node<E> x = first; x != null; x = x.next) {
if (o.equals(x.item)) {
unlink(x);
return true;
}
}
}
return false;
}

/**
* Appends all of the elements in the specified collection to the end of
* this list, in the order that they are returned by the specified
* collection's iterator. The behavior of this operation is undefined if
* the specified collection is modified while the operation is in
* progress. (Note that this will occur if the specified collection is
* this list, and it's nonempty.)
*
* @param c collection containing elements to be added to this list
* @return {@code true} if this list changed as a result of the call
* @throws NullPointerException if the specified collection is null
*/
public boolean addAll(Collection<? extends E> c) {
return addAll(size, c);
}

/**
* Inserts all of the elements in the specified collection into this
* list, starting at the specified position. Shifts the element
* currently at that position (if any) and any subsequent elements to
* the right (increases their indices). The new elements will appear
* in the list in the order that they are returned by the
* specified collection's iterator.
*
* @param index index at which to insert the first element
* from the specified collection
* @param c collection containing elements to be added to this list
* @return {@code true} if this list changed as a result of the call
* @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
* @throws NullPointerException if the specified collection is null
*/
public boolean addAll(int index, Collection<? extends E> c) {
checkPositionIndex(index);

Object[] a = c.toArray();
int numNew = a.length;
if (numNew == 0)
return false;

Node<E> pred, succ;
if (index == size) {
succ = null;
pred = last;
} else {
succ = node(index);
pred = succ.prev;
}

for (Object o : a) {
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked") E e = (E) o;
Node<E> newNode = new Node<>(pred, e, null);
if (pred == null)
first = newNode;
else
pred.next = newNode;
pred = newNode;
}

if (succ == null) {
last = pred;
} else {
pred.next = succ;
succ.prev = pred;
}

size += numNew;
modCount++;
return true;
}

/**
* Removes all of the elements from this list.
* The list will be empty after this call returns.
*/
public void clear() {
// Clearing all of the links between nodes is "unnecessary", but:
// - helps a generational GC if the discarded nodes inhabit
// more than one generation
// - is sure to free memory even if there is a reachable Iterator
for (Node<E> x = first; x != null; ) {
Node<E> next = x.next;
x.item = null;
x.next = null;
x.prev = null;
x = next;
}
first = last = null;
size = 0;
modCount++;
}


// Positional Access Operations

/**
* Returns the element at the specified position in this list.
*
* @param index index of the element to return
* @return the element at the specified position in this list
* @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
*/
public E get(int index) {
checkElementIndex(index);
return node(index).item;
}

/**
* Replaces the element at the specified position in this list with the
* specified element.
*
* @param index index of the element to replace
* @param element element to be stored at the specified position
* @return the element previously at the specified position
* @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
*/
public E set(int index, E element) {
checkElementIndex(index);
Node<E> x = node(index);
E oldVal = x.item;
x.item = element;
return oldVal;
}

/**
* Inserts the specified element at the specified position in this list.
* Shifts the element currently at that position (if any) and any
* subsequent elements to the right (adds one to their indices).
*
* @param index index at which the specified element is to be inserted
* @param element element to be inserted
* @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
*/
public void add(int index, E element) {
checkPositionIndex(index);

if (index == size)
linkLast(element);
else
linkBefore(element, node(index));
}

/**
* Removes the element at the specified position in this list. Shifts any
* subsequent elements to the left (subtracts one from their indices).
* Returns the element that was removed from the list.
*
* @param index the index of the element to be removed
* @return the element previously at the specified position
* @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
*/
public E remove(int index) {
checkElementIndex(index);
return unlink(node(index));
}

/**
* Tells if the argument is the index of an existing element.
*/
private boolean isElementIndex(int index) {
return index >= 0 && index < size;
}

/**
* Tells if the argument is the index of a valid position for an
* iterator or an add operation.
*/
private boolean isPositionIndex(int index) {
return index >= 0 && index <= size;
}

/**
* Constructs an IndexOutOfBoundsException detail message.
* Of the many possible refactorings of the error handling code,
* this "outlining" performs best with both server and client VMs.
*/
private String outOfBoundsMsg(int index) {
return "Index: "+index+", Size: "+size;
}

private void checkElementIndex(int index) {
if (!isElementIndex(index))
throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException(outOfBoundsMsg(index));
}

private void checkPositionIndex(int index) {
if (!isPositionIndex(index))
throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException(outOfBoundsMsg(index));
}

/**
* Returns the (non-null) Node at the specified element index.
*/
Node<E> node(int index) {
// assert isElementIndex(index);

if (index < (size >> 1)) {
Node<E> x = first;
for (int i = 0; i < index; i++)
x = x.next;
return x;
} else {
Node<E> x = last;
for (int i = size - 1; i > index; i--)
x = x.prev;
return x;
}
}

// Search Operations

/**
* Returns the index of the first occurrence of the specified element
* in this list, or -1 if this list does not contain the element.
* More formally, returns the lowest index {@code i} such that
* <tt>(o==null&nbsp;?&nbsp;get(i)==null&nbsp;:&nbsp;o.equals(get(i)))</tt>,
* or -1 if there is no such index.
*
* @param o element to search for
* @return the index of the first occurrence of the specified element in
* this list, or -1 if this list does not contain the element
*/
public int indexOf(Object o) {
int index = 0;
if (o == null) {
for (Node<E> x = first; x != null; x = x.next) {
if (x.item == null)
return index;
index++;
}
} else {
for (Node<E> x = first; x != null; x = x.next) {
if (o.equals(x.item))
return index;
index++;
}
}
return -1;
}

/**
* Returns the index of the last occurrence of the specified element
* in this list, or -1 if this list does not contain the element.
* More formally, returns the highest index {@code i} such that
* <tt>(o==null&nbsp;?&nbsp;get(i)==null&nbsp;:&nbsp;o.equals(get(i)))</tt>,
* or -1 if there is no such index.
*
* @param o element to search for
* @return the index of the last occurrence of the specified element in
* this list, or -1 if this list does not contain the element
*/
public int lastIndexOf(Object o) {
int index = size;
if (o == null) {
for (Node<E> x = last; x != null; x = x.prev) {
index--;
if (x.item == null)
return index;
}
} else {
for (Node<E> x = last; x != null; x = x.prev) {
index--;
if (o.equals(x.item))
return index;
}
}
return -1;
}

// Queue operations.

/**
* Retrieves, but does not remove, the head (first element) of this list.
*
* @return the head of this list, or {@code null} if this list is empty
* @since 1.5
*/
public E peek() {
final Node<E> f = first;
return (f == null) ? null : f.item;
}

/**
* Retrieves, but does not remove, the head (first element) of this list.
*
* @return the head of this list
* @throws NoSuchElementException if this list is empty
* @since 1.5
*/
public E element() {
return getFirst();
}

/**
* Retrieves and removes the head (first element) of this list.
*
* @return the head of this list, or {@code null} if this list is empty
* @since 1.5
*/
public E poll() {
final Node<E> f = first;
return (f == null) ? null : unlinkFirst(f);
}

/**
* Retrieves and removes the head (first element) of this list.
*
* @return the head of this list
* @throws NoSuchElementException if this list is empty
* @since 1.5
*/
public E remove() {
return removeFirst();
}

/**
* Adds the specified element as the tail (last element) of this list.
*
* @param e the element to add
* @return {@code true} (as specified by {@link Queue#offer})
* @since 1.5
*/
public boolean offer(E e) {
return add(e);
}

// Deque operations
/**
* Inserts the specified element at the front of this list.
*
* @param e the element to insert
* @return {@code true} (as specified by {@link Deque#offerFirst})
* @since 1.6
*/
public boolean offerFirst(E e) {
addFirst(e);
return true;
}

/**
* Inserts the specified element at the end of this list.
*
* @param e the element to insert
* @return {@code true} (as specified by {@link Deque#offerLast})
* @since 1.6
*/
public boolean offerLast(E e) {
addLast(e);
return true;
}

/**
* Retrieves, but does not remove, the first element of this list,
* or returns {@code null} if this list is empty.
*
* @return the first element of this list, or {@code null}
* if this list is empty
* @since 1.6
*/
public E peekFirst() {
final Node<E> f = first;
return (f == null) ? null : f.item;
}

/**
* Retrieves, but does not remove, the last element of this list,
* or returns {@code null} if this list is empty.
*
* @return the last element of this list, or {@code null}
* if this list is empty
* @since 1.6
*/
public E peekLast() {
final Node<E> l = last;
return (l == null) ? null : l.item;
}

/**
* Retrieves and removes the first element of this list,
* or returns {@code null} if this list is empty.
*
* @return the first element of this list, or {@code null} if
* this list is empty
* @since 1.6
*/
public E pollFirst() {
final Node<E> f = first;
return (f == null) ? null : unlinkFirst(f);
}

/**
* Retrieves and removes the last element of this list,
* or returns {@code null} if this list is empty.
*
* @return the last element of this list, or {@code null} if
* this list is empty
* @since 1.6
*/
public E pollLast() {
final Node<E> l = last;
return (l == null) ? null : unlinkLast(l);
}

/**
* Pushes an element onto the stack represented by this list. In other
* words, inserts the element at the front of this list.
*
* <p>This method is equivalent to {@link #addFirst}.
*
* @param e the element to push
* @since 1.6
*/
public void push(E e) {
addFirst(e);
}

/**
* Pops an element from the stack represented by this list. In other
* words, removes and returns the first element of this list.
*
* <p>This method is equivalent to {@link #removeFirst()}.
*
* @return the element at the front of this list (which is the top
* of the stack represented by this list)
* @throws NoSuchElementException if this list is empty
* @since 1.6
*/
public E pop() {
return removeFirst();
}

/**
* Removes the first occurrence of the specified element in this
* list (when traversing the list from head to tail). If the list
* does not contain the element, it is unchanged.
*
* @param o element to be removed from this list, if present
* @return {@code true} if the list contained the specified element
* @since 1.6
*/
public boolean removeFirstOccurrence(Object o) {
return remove(o);
}

/**
* Removes the last occurrence of the specified element in this
* list (when traversing the list from head to tail). If the list
* does not contain the element, it is unchanged.
*
* @param o element to be removed from this list, if present
* @return {@code true} if the list contained the specified element
* @since 1.6
*/
public boolean removeLastOccurrence(Object o) {
if (o == null) {
for (Node<E> x = last; x != null; x = x.prev) {
if (x.item == null) {
unlink(x);
return true;
}
}
} else {
for (Node<E> x = last; x != null; x = x.prev) {
if (o.equals(x.item)) {
unlink(x);
return true;
}
}
}
return false;
}

/**
* Returns a list-iterator of the elements in this list (in proper
* sequence), starting at the specified position in the list.
* Obeys the general contract of {@code List.listIterator(int)}.<p>
*
* The list-iterator is <i>fail-fast</i>: if the list is structurally
* modified at any time after the Iterator is created, in any way except
* through the list-iterator's own {@code remove} or {@code add}
* methods, the list-iterator will throw a
* {@code ConcurrentModificationException}. Thus, in the face of
* concurrent modification, the iterator fails quickly and cleanly, rather
* than risking arbitrary, non-deterministic behavior at an undetermined
* time in the future.
*
* @param index index of the first element to be returned from the
* list-iterator (by a call to {@code next})
* @return a ListIterator of the elements in this list (in proper
* sequence), starting at the specified position in the list
* @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
* @see List#listIterator(int)
*/
public ListIterator<E> listIterator(int index) {
checkPositionIndex(index);
return new ListItr(index);
}

private class ListItr implements ListIterator<E> {
private Node<E> lastReturned;
private Node<E> next;
private int nextIndex;
private int expectedModCount = modCount;

ListItr(int index) {
// assert isPositionIndex(index);
next = (index == size) ? null : node(index);
nextIndex = index;
}

public boolean hasNext() {
return nextIndex < size;
}

public E next() {
checkForComodification();
if (!hasNext())
throw new NoSuchElementException();

lastReturned = next;
next = next.next;
nextIndex++;
return lastReturned.item;
}

public boolean hasPrevious() {
return nextIndex > 0;
}

public E previous() {
checkForComodification();
if (!hasPrevious())
throw new NoSuchElementException();

lastReturned = next = (next == null) ? last : next.prev;
nextIndex--;
return lastReturned.item;
}

public int nextIndex() {
return nextIndex;
}

public int previousIndex() {
return nextIndex - 1;
}

public void remove() {
checkForComodification();
if (lastReturned == null)
throw new IllegalStateException();

Node<E> lastNext = lastReturned.next;
unlink(lastReturned);
if (next == lastReturned)
next = lastNext;
else
nextIndex--;
lastReturned = null;
expectedModCount++;
}

public void set(E e) {
if (lastReturned == null)
throw new IllegalStateException();
checkForComodification();
lastReturned.item = e;
}

public void add(E e) {
checkForComodification();
lastReturned = null;
if (next == null)
linkLast(e);
else
linkBefore(e, next);
nextIndex++;
expectedModCount++;
}

public void forEachRemaining(Consumer<? super E> action) {
Objects.requireNonNull(action);
while (modCount == expectedModCount && nextIndex < size) {
action.accept(next.item);
lastReturned = next;
next = next.next;
nextIndex++;
}
checkForComodification();
}

final void checkForComodification() {
if (modCount != expectedModCount)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}

private static class Node<E> {
E item;
Node<E> next;
Node<E> prev;

Node(Node<E> prev, E element, Node<E> next) {
this.item = element;
this.next = next;
this.prev = prev;
}
}

/**
* @since 1.6
*/
public Iterator<E> descendingIterator() {
return new DescendingIterator();
}

/**
* Adapter to provide descending iterators via ListItr.previous
*/
private class DescendingIterator implements Iterator<E> {
private final ListItr itr = new ListItr(size());
public boolean hasNext() {
return itr.hasPrevious();
}
public E next() {
return itr.previous();
}
public void remove() {
itr.remove();
}
}

@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
private LinkedList<E> superClone() {
try {
return (LinkedList<E>) super.clone();
} catch (CloneNotSupportedException e) {
throw new InternalError(e);
}
}

/**
* Returns a shallow copy of this {@code LinkedList}. (The elements
* themselves are not cloned.)
*
* @return a shallow copy of this {@code LinkedList} instance
*/
public Object clone() {
LinkedList<E> clone = superClone();

// Put clone into "virgin" state
clone.first = clone.last = null;
clone.size = 0;
clone.modCount = 0;

// Initialize clone with our elements
for (Node<E> x = first; x != null; x = x.next)
clone.add(x.item);

return clone;
}

/**
* Returns an array containing all of the elements in this list
* in proper sequence (from first to last element).
*
* <p>The returned array will be "safe" in that no references to it are
* maintained by this list. (In other words, this method must allocate
* a new array). The caller is thus free to modify the returned array.
*
* <p>This method acts as bridge between array-based and collection-based
* APIs.
*
* @return an array containing all of the elements in this list
* in proper sequence
*/
public Object[] toArray() {
Object[] result = new Object[size];
int i = 0;
for (Node<E> x = first; x != null; x = x.next)
result[i++] = x.item;
return result;
}

/**
* Returns an array containing all of the elements in this list in
* proper sequence (from first to last element); the runtime type of
* the returned array is that of the specified array. If the list fits
* in the specified array, it is returned therein. Otherwise, a new
* array is allocated with the runtime type of the specified array and
* the size of this list.
*
* <p>If the list fits in the specified array with room to spare (i.e.,
* the array has more elements than the list), the element in the array
* immediately following the end of the list is set to {@code null}.
* (This is useful in determining the length of the list <i>only</i> if
* the caller knows that the list does not contain any null elements.)
*
* <p>Like the {@link #toArray()} method, this method acts as bridge between
* array-based and collection-based APIs. Further, this method allows
* precise control over the runtime type of the output array, and may,
* under certain circumstances, be used to save allocation costs.
*
* <p>Suppose {@code x} is a list known to contain only strings.
* The following code can be used to dump the list into a newly
* allocated array of {@code String}:
*
* <pre>
* String[] y = x.toArray(new String[0]);</pre>
*
* Note that {@code toArray(new Object[0])} is identical in function to
* {@code toArray()}.
*
* @param a the array into which the elements of the list are to
* be stored, if it is big enough; otherwise, a new array of the
* same runtime type is allocated for this purpose.
* @return an array containing the elements of the list
* @throws ArrayStoreException if the runtime type of the specified array
* is not a supertype of the runtime type of every element in
* this list
* @throws NullPointerException if the specified array is null
*/
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public <T> T[] toArray(T[] a) {
if (a.length < size)
a = (T[])java.lang.reflect.Array.newInstance(
a.getClass().getComponentType(), size);
int i = 0;
Object[] result = a;
for (Node<E> x = first; x != null; x = x.next)
result[i++] = x.item;

if (a.length > size)
a[size] = null;

return a;
}

private static final long serialVersionUID = 876323262645176354L;

/**
* Saves the state of this {@code LinkedList} instance to a stream
* (that is, serializes it).
*
* @serialData The size of the list (the number of elements it
* contains) is emitted (int), followed by all of its
* elements (each an Object) in the proper order.
*/
private void writeObject(java.io.ObjectOutputStream s)
throws java.io.IOException {
// Write out any hidden serialization magic
s.defaultWriteObject();

// Write out size
s.writeInt(size);

// Write out all elements in the proper order.
for (Node<E> x = first; x != null; x = x.next)
s.writeObject(x.item);
}

/**
* Reconstitutes this {@code LinkedList} instance from a stream
* (that is, deserializes it).
*/
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
private void readObject(java.io.ObjectInputStream s)
throws java.io.IOException, ClassNotFoundException {
// Read in any hidden serialization magic
s.defaultReadObject();

// Read in size
int size = s.readInt();

// Read in all elements in the proper order.
for (int i = 0; i < size; i++)
linkLast((E)s.readObject());
}

/**
* Creates a <em><a href="Spliterator.html#binding">late-binding</a></em>
* and <em>fail-fast</em> {@link Spliterator} over the elements in this
* list.
*
* <p>The {@code Spliterator} reports {@link Spliterator#SIZED} and
* {@link Spliterator#ORDERED}. Overriding implementations should document
* the reporting of additional characteristic values.
*
* @implNote
* The {@code Spliterator} additionally reports {@link Spliterator#SUBSIZED}
* and implements {@code trySplit} to permit limited parallelism..
*
* @return a {@code Spliterator} over the elements in this list
* @since 1.8
*/
@Override
public Spliterator<E> spliterator() {
return new LLSpliterator<E>(this, -1, 0);
}

/** A customized variant of Spliterators.IteratorSpliterator */
static final class LLSpliterator<E> implements Spliterator<E> {
static final int BATCH_UNIT = 1 << 10; // batch array size increment
static final int MAX_BATCH = 1 << 25; // max batch array size;
final LinkedList<E> list; // null OK unless traversed
Node<E> current; // current node; null until initialized
int est; // size estimate; -1 until first needed
int expectedModCount; // initialized when est set
int batch; // batch size for splits

LLSpliterator(LinkedList<E> list, int est, int expectedModCount) {
this.list = list;
this.est = est;
this.expectedModCount = expectedModCount;
}

final int getEst() {
int s; // force initialization
final LinkedList<E> lst;
if ((s = est) < 0) {
if ((lst = list) == null)
s = est = 0;
else {
expectedModCount = lst.modCount;
current = lst.first;
s = est = lst.size;
}
}
return s;
}

public long estimateSize() { return (long) getEst(); }

public Spliterator<E> trySplit() {
Node<E> p;
int s = getEst();
if (s > 1 && (p = current) != null) {
int n = batch + BATCH_UNIT;
if (n > s)
n = s;
if (n > MAX_BATCH)
n = MAX_BATCH;
Object[] a = new Object[n];
int j = 0;
do { a[j++] = p.item; } while ((p = p.next) != null && j < n);
current = p;
batch = j;
est = s - j;
return Spliterators.spliterator(a, 0, j, Spliterator.ORDERED);
}
return null;
}

public void forEachRemaining(Consumer<? super E> action) {
Node<E> p; int n;
if (action == null) throw new NullPointerException();
if ((n = getEst()) > 0 && (p = current) != null) {
current = null;
est = 0;
do {
E e = p.item;
p = p.next;
action.accept(e);
} while (p != null && --n > 0);
}
if (list.modCount != expectedModCount)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}

public boolean tryAdvance(Consumer<? super E> action) {
Node<E> p;
if (action == null) throw new NullPointerException();
if (getEst() > 0 && (p = current) != null) {
--est;
E e = p.item;
current = p.next;
action.accept(e);
if (list.modCount != expectedModCount)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
return true;
}
return false;
}

public int characteristics() {
return Spliterator.ORDERED | Spliterator.SIZED | Spliterator.SUBSIZED;
}
}

}

关于LinkedList的源码,给出几点比较重要的总结:

1、从源码中很明显可以看出,LinkedList的实现是基于双向循环链表的,且头结点中不存放数据,如下图;

linkedList
2、注意两个不同的构造方法。无参构造方法直接建立一个仅包含head节点的空链表,包含Collection的构造方法,先调用无参构造方法建立一个空链表,而后将Collection中的数据加入到链表的尾部后面。

3、在查找和删除某元素时,源码中都划分为该元素为null和不为null两种情况来处理,LinkedList中允许元素为null。

4、LinkedList是基于链表实现的,因此不存在容量不足的问题,所以这里没有扩容的方法。

5、注意源码中的Entry<E> entry(int index)方法。该方法返回双向链表中指定位置处的节点,而链表中是没有下标索引的,要指定位置出的元素,就要遍历该链表,从源码的实现中,我们看到这里有一个加速动作。源码中先将index与长度size的一半比较,如果index<size/2,就只从位置0往后遍历到位置index处,而如果index>size/2,就只从位置size往前遍历到位置index处。这样可以减少一部分不必要的遍历,从而提高一定的效率(实际上效率还是很低)。
6、注意链表类对应的数据结构Entry。如下;
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// 双向链表的节点所对应的数据结构。    
// 包含3部分:上一节点,下一节点,当前节点值。
private static class Entry<E> {
// 当前节点所包含的值
E element;
// 下一个节点
Entry<E> next;
// 上一个节点
Entry<E> previous;

/**
* 链表节点的构造函数。
* 参数说明:
* element —— 节点所包含的数据
* next —— 下一个节点
* previous —— 上一个节点
*/
Entry(E element, Entry<E> next, Entry<E> previous) {
this.element = element;
this.next = next;
this.previous = previous;
}
}

7、LinkedList是基于链表实现的,因此插入删除效率高,查找效率低(虽然有一个加速动作)。
8、要注意源码中还实现了栈和队列的操作方法,因此也可以作为栈、队列和双端队列来使用。

Vector

Vector也是基于数组实现的,是一个动态数组,其容量能自动增长。

Vector是JDK1.0引入了,它的很多实现方法都加入了同步语句,因此是线程安全的(其实也只是相对安全,有些时候还是要加入同步语句来保证线程的安全),可以用于多线程环境。

Vector没有丝线Serializable接口,因此它不支持序列化,实现了Cloneable接口,能被克隆,实现了RandomAccess接口,支持快速随机访问。

Vector源码剖析

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package java.util;

import java.util.function.Consumer;
import java.util.function.Predicate;
import java.util.function.UnaryOperator;

public class Vector<E>
extends AbstractList<E>
implements List<E>, RandomAccess, Cloneable, java.io.Serializable
{
/**
* The array buffer into which the components of the vector are
* stored. The capacity of the vector is the length of this array buffer,
* and is at least large enough to contain all the vector's elements.
*
* <p>Any array elements following the last element in the Vector are null.
*
* @serial
*/
protected Object[] elementData;

/**
* The number of valid components in this {@code Vector} object.
* Components {@code elementData[0]} through
* {@code elementData[elementCount-1]} are the actual items.
*
* @serial
*/
protected int elementCount;

/**
* The amount by which the capacity of the vector is automatically
* incremented when its size becomes greater than its capacity. If
* the capacity increment is less than or equal to zero, the capacity
* of the vector is doubled each time it needs to grow.
*
* @serial
*/
protected int capacityIncrement;

/** use serialVersionUID from JDK 1.0.2 for interoperability */
private static final long serialVersionUID = -2767605614048989439L;

/**
* Constructs an empty vector with the specified initial capacity and
* capacity increment.
*
* @param initialCapacity the initial capacity of the vector
* @param capacityIncrement the amount by which the capacity is
* increased when the vector overflows
* @throws IllegalArgumentException if the specified initial capacity
* is negative
*/
public Vector(int initialCapacity, int capacityIncrement) {
super();
if (initialCapacity < 0)
throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal Capacity: "+
initialCapacity);
this.elementData = new Object[initialCapacity];
this.capacityIncrement = capacityIncrement;
}

/**
* Constructs an empty vector with the specified initial capacity and
* with its capacity increment equal to zero.
*
* @param initialCapacity the initial capacity of the vector
* @throws IllegalArgumentException if the specified initial capacity
* is negative
*/
public Vector(int initialCapacity) {
this(initialCapacity, 0);
}

/**
* Constructs an empty vector so that its internal data array
* has size {@code 10} and its standard capacity increment is
* zero.
*/
public Vector() {
this(10);
}

/**
* Constructs a vector containing the elements of the specified
* collection, in the order they are returned by the collection's
* iterator.
*
* @param c the collection whose elements are to be placed into this
* vector
* @throws NullPointerException if the specified collection is null
* @since 1.2
*/
public Vector(Collection<? extends E> c) {
elementData = c.toArray();
elementCount = elementData.length;
// c.toArray might (incorrectly) not return Object[] (see 6260652)
if (elementData.getClass() != Object[].class)
elementData = Arrays.copyOf(elementData, elementCount, Object[].class);
}

/**
* Copies the components of this vector into the specified array.
* The item at index {@code k} in this vector is copied into
* component {@code k} of {@code anArray}.
*
* @param anArray the array into which the components get copied
* @throws NullPointerException if the given array is null
* @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException if the specified array is not
* large enough to hold all the components of this vector
* @throws ArrayStoreException if a component of this vector is not of
* a runtime type that can be stored in the specified array
* @see #toArray(Object[])
*/
public synchronized void copyInto(Object[] anArray) {
System.arraycopy(elementData, 0, anArray, 0, elementCount);
}

/**
* Trims the capacity of this vector to be the vector's current
* size. If the capacity of this vector is larger than its current
* size, then the capacity is changed to equal the size by replacing
* its internal data array, kept in the field {@code elementData},
* with a smaller one. An application can use this operation to
* minimize the storage of a vector.
*/
public synchronized void trimToSize() {
modCount++;
int oldCapacity = elementData.length;
if (elementCount < oldCapacity) {
elementData = Arrays.copyOf(elementData, elementCount);
}
}

/**
* Increases the capacity of this vector, if necessary, to ensure
* that it can hold at least the number of components specified by
* the minimum capacity argument.
*
* <p>If the current capacity of this vector is less than
* {@code minCapacity}, then its capacity is increased by replacing its
* internal data array, kept in the field {@code elementData}, with a
* larger one. The size of the new data array will be the old size plus
* {@code capacityIncrement}, unless the value of
* {@code capacityIncrement} is less than or equal to zero, in which case
* the new capacity will be twice the old capacity; but if this new size
* is still smaller than {@code minCapacity}, then the new capacity will
* be {@code minCapacity}.
*
* @param minCapacity the desired minimum capacity
*/
public synchronized void ensureCapacity(int minCapacity) {
if (minCapacity > 0) {
modCount++;
ensureCapacityHelper(minCapacity);
}
}

/**
* This implements the unsynchronized semantics of ensureCapacity.
* Synchronized methods in this class can internally call this
* method for ensuring capacity without incurring the cost of an
* extra synchronization.
*
* @see #ensureCapacity(int)
*/
private void ensureCapacityHelper(int minCapacity) {
// overflow-conscious code
if (minCapacity - elementData.length > 0)
grow(minCapacity);
}

/**
* The maximum size of array to allocate.
* Some VMs reserve some header words in an array.
* Attempts to allocate larger arrays may result in
* OutOfMemoryError: Requested array size exceeds VM limit
*/
private static final int MAX_ARRAY_SIZE = Integer.MAX_VALUE - 8;

private void grow(int minCapacity) {
// overflow-conscious code
int oldCapacity = elementData.length;
int newCapacity = oldCapacity + ((capacityIncrement > 0) ?
capacityIncrement : oldCapacity);
if (newCapacity - minCapacity < 0)
newCapacity = minCapacity;
if (newCapacity - MAX_ARRAY_SIZE > 0)
newCapacity = hugeCapacity(minCapacity);
elementData = Arrays.copyOf(elementData, newCapacity);
}

private static int hugeCapacity(int minCapacity) {
if (minCapacity < 0) // overflow
throw new OutOfMemoryError();
return (minCapacity > MAX_ARRAY_SIZE) ?
Integer.MAX_VALUE :
MAX_ARRAY_SIZE;
}

/**
* Sets the size of this vector. If the new size is greater than the
* current size, new {@code null} items are added to the end of
* the vector. If the new size is less than the current size, all
* components at index {@code newSize} and greater are discarded.
*
* @param newSize the new size of this vector
* @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException if the new size is negative
*/
public synchronized void setSize(int newSize) {
modCount++;
if (newSize > elementCount) {
ensureCapacityHelper(newSize);
} else {
for (int i = newSize ; i < elementCount ; i++) {
elementData[i] = null;
}
}
elementCount = newSize;
}

/**
* Returns the current capacity of this vector.
*
* @return the current capacity (the length of its internal
* data array, kept in the field {@code elementData}
* of this vector)
*/
public synchronized int capacity() {
return elementData.length;
}

/**
* Returns the number of components in this vector.
*
* @return the number of components in this vector
*/
public synchronized int size() {
return elementCount;
}

/**
* Tests if this vector has no components.
*
* @return {@code true} if and only if this vector has
* no components, that is, its size is zero;
* {@code false} otherwise.
*/
public synchronized boolean isEmpty() {
return elementCount == 0;
}

/**
* Returns an enumeration of the components of this vector. The
* returned {@code Enumeration} object will generate all items in
* this vector. The first item generated is the item at index {@code 0},
* then the item at index {@code 1}, and so on.
*
* @return an enumeration of the components of this vector
* @see Iterator
*/
public Enumeration<E> elements() {
return new Enumeration<E>() {
int count = 0;

public boolean hasMoreElements() {
return count < elementCount;
}

public E nextElement() {
synchronized (Vector.this) {
if (count < elementCount) {
return elementData(count++);
}
}
throw new NoSuchElementException("Vector Enumeration");
}
};
}

/**
* Returns {@code true} if this vector contains the specified element.
* More formally, returns {@code true} if and only if this vector
* contains at least one element {@code e} such that
* <tt>(o==null&nbsp;?&nbsp;e==null&nbsp;:&nbsp;o.equals(e))</tt>.
*
* @param o element whose presence in this vector is to be tested
* @return {@code true} if this vector contains the specified element
*/
public boolean contains(Object o) {
return indexOf(o, 0) >= 0;
}

/**
* Returns the index of the first occurrence of the specified element
* in this vector, or -1 if this vector does not contain the element.
* More formally, returns the lowest index {@code i} such that
* <tt>(o==null&nbsp;?&nbsp;get(i)==null&nbsp;:&nbsp;o.equals(get(i)))</tt>,
* or -1 if there is no such index.
*
* @param o element to search for
* @return the index of the first occurrence of the specified element in
* this vector, or -1 if this vector does not contain the element
*/
public int indexOf(Object o) {
return indexOf(o, 0);
}

/**
* Returns the index of the first occurrence of the specified element in
* this vector, searching forwards from {@code index}, or returns -1 if
* the element is not found.
* More formally, returns the lowest index {@code i} such that
* <tt>(i&nbsp;&gt;=&nbsp;index&nbsp;&amp;&amp;&nbsp;(o==null&nbsp;?&nbsp;get(i)==null&nbsp;:&nbsp;o.equals(get(i))))</tt>,
* or -1 if there is no such index.
*
* @param o element to search for
* @param index index to start searching from
* @return the index of the first occurrence of the element in
* this vector at position {@code index} or later in the vector;
* {@code -1} if the element is not found.
* @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException if the specified index is negative
* @see Object#equals(Object)
*/
public synchronized int indexOf(Object o, int index) {
if (o == null) {
for (int i = index ; i < elementCount ; i++)
if (elementData[i]==null)
return i;
} else {
for (int i = index ; i < elementCount ; i++)
if (o.equals(elementData[i]))
return i;
}
return -1;
}

/**
* Returns the index of the last occurrence of the specified element
* in this vector, or -1 if this vector does not contain the element.
* More formally, returns the highest index {@code i} such that
* <tt>(o==null&nbsp;?&nbsp;get(i)==null&nbsp;:&nbsp;o.equals(get(i)))</tt>,
* or -1 if there is no such index.
*
* @param o element to search for
* @return the index of the last occurrence of the specified element in
* this vector, or -1 if this vector does not contain the element
*/
public synchronized int lastIndexOf(Object o) {
return lastIndexOf(o, elementCount-1);
}

/**
* Returns the index of the last occurrence of the specified element in
* this vector, searching backwards from {@code index}, or returns -1 if
* the element is not found.
* More formally, returns the highest index {@code i} such that
* <tt>(i&nbsp;&lt;=&nbsp;index&nbsp;&amp;&amp;&nbsp;(o==null&nbsp;?&nbsp;get(i)==null&nbsp;:&nbsp;o.equals(get(i))))</tt>,
* or -1 if there is no such index.
*
* @param o element to search for
* @param index index to start searching backwards from
* @return the index of the last occurrence of the element at position
* less than or equal to {@code index} in this vector;
* -1 if the element is not found.
* @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException if the specified index is greater
* than or equal to the current size of this vector
*/
public synchronized int lastIndexOf(Object o, int index) {
if (index >= elementCount)
throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException(index + " >= "+ elementCount);

if (o == null) {
for (int i = index; i >= 0; i--)
if (elementData[i]==null)
return i;
} else {
for (int i = index; i >= 0; i--)
if (o.equals(elementData[i]))
return i;
}
return -1;
}

/**
* Returns the component at the specified index.
*
* <p>This method is identical in functionality to the {@link #get(int)}
* method (which is part of the {@link List} interface).
*
* @param index an index into this vector
* @return the component at the specified index
* @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException if the index is out of range
* ({@code index < 0 || index >= size()})
*/
public synchronized E elementAt(int index) {
if (index >= elementCount) {
throw new ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException(index + " >= " + elementCount);
}

return elementData(index);
}

/**
* Returns the first component (the item at index {@code 0}) of
* this vector.
*
* @return the first component of this vector
* @throws NoSuchElementException if this vector has no components
*/
public synchronized E firstElement() {
if (elementCount == 0) {
throw new NoSuchElementException();
}
return elementData(0);
}

/**
* Returns the last component of the vector.
*
* @return the last component of the vector, i.e., the component at index
* <code>size()&nbsp;-&nbsp;1</code>.
* @throws NoSuchElementException if this vector is empty
*/
public synchronized E lastElement() {
if (elementCount == 0) {
throw new NoSuchElementException();
}
return elementData(elementCount - 1);
}

/**
* Sets the component at the specified {@code index} of this
* vector to be the specified object. The previous component at that
* position is discarded.
*
* <p>The index must be a value greater than or equal to {@code 0}
* and less than the current size of the vector.
*
* <p>This method is identical in functionality to the
* {@link #set(int, Object) set(int, E)}
* method (which is part of the {@link List} interface). Note that the
* {@code set} method reverses the order of the parameters, to more closely
* match array usage. Note also that the {@code set} method returns the
* old value that was stored at the specified position.
*
* @param obj what the component is to be set to
* @param index the specified index
* @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException if the index is out of range
* ({@code index < 0 || index >= size()})
*/
public synchronized void setElementAt(E obj, int index) {
if (index >= elementCount) {
throw new ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException(index + " >= " +
elementCount);
}
elementData[index] = obj;
}

/**
* Deletes the component at the specified index. Each component in
* this vector with an index greater or equal to the specified
* {@code index} is shifted downward to have an index one
* smaller than the value it had previously. The size of this vector
* is decreased by {@code 1}.
*
* <p>The index must be a value greater than or equal to {@code 0}
* and less than the current size of the vector.
*
* <p>This method is identical in functionality to the {@link #remove(int)}
* method (which is part of the {@link List} interface). Note that the
* {@code remove} method returns the old value that was stored at the
* specified position.
*
* @param index the index of the object to remove
* @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException if the index is out of range
* ({@code index < 0 || index >= size()})
*/
public synchronized void removeElementAt(int index) {
modCount++;
if (index >= elementCount) {
throw new ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException(index + " >= " +
elementCount);
}
else if (index < 0) {
throw new ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException(index);
}
int j = elementCount - index - 1;
if (j > 0) {
System.arraycopy(elementData, index + 1, elementData, index, j);
}
elementCount--;
elementData[elementCount] = null; /* to let gc do its work */
}

/**
* Inserts the specified object as a component in this vector at the
* specified {@code index}. Each component in this vector with
* an index greater or equal to the specified {@code index} is
* shifted upward to have an index one greater than the value it had
* previously.
*
* <p>The index must be a value greater than or equal to {@code 0}
* and less than or equal to the current size of the vector. (If the
* index is equal to the current size of the vector, the new element
* is appended to the Vector.)
*
* <p>This method is identical in functionality to the
* {@link #add(int, Object) add(int, E)}
* method (which is part of the {@link List} interface). Note that the
* {@code add} method reverses the order of the parameters, to more closely
* match array usage.
*
* @param obj the component to insert
* @param index where to insert the new component
* @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException if the index is out of range
* ({@code index < 0 || index > size()})
*/
public synchronized void insertElementAt(E obj, int index) {
modCount++;
if (index > elementCount) {
throw new ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException(index
+ " > " + elementCount);
}
ensureCapacityHelper(elementCount + 1);
System.arraycopy(elementData, index, elementData, index + 1, elementCount - index);
elementData[index] = obj;
elementCount++;
}

/**
* Adds the specified component to the end of this vector,
* increasing its size by one. The capacity of this vector is
* increased if its size becomes greater than its capacity.
*
* <p>This method is identical in functionality to the
* {@link #add(Object) add(E)}
* method (which is part of the {@link List} interface).
*
* @param obj the component to be added
*/
public synchronized void addElement(E obj) {
modCount++;
ensureCapacityHelper(elementCount + 1);
elementData[elementCount++] = obj;
}

/**
* Removes the first (lowest-indexed) occurrence of the argument
* from this vector. If the object is found in this vector, each
* component in the vector with an index greater or equal to the
* object's index is shifted downward to have an index one smaller
* than the value it had previously.
*
* <p>This method is identical in functionality to the
* {@link #remove(Object)} method (which is part of the
* {@link List} interface).
*
* @param obj the component to be removed
* @return {@code true} if the argument was a component of this
* vector; {@code false} otherwise.
*/
public synchronized boolean removeElement(Object obj) {
modCount++;
int i = indexOf(obj);
if (i >= 0) {
removeElementAt(i);
return true;
}
return false;
}

/**
* Removes all components from this vector and sets its size to zero.
*
* <p>This method is identical in functionality to the {@link #clear}
* method (which is part of the {@link List} interface).
*/
public synchronized void removeAllElements() {
modCount++;
// Let gc do its work
for (int i = 0; i < elementCount; i++)
elementData[i] = null;

elementCount = 0;
}

/**
* Returns a clone of this vector. The copy will contain a
* reference to a clone of the internal data array, not a reference
* to the original internal data array of this {@code Vector} object.
*
* @return a clone of this vector
*/
public synchronized Object clone() {
try {
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
Vector<E> v = (Vector<E>) super.clone();
v.elementData = Arrays.copyOf(elementData, elementCount);
v.modCount = 0;
return v;
} catch (CloneNotSupportedException e) {
// this shouldn't happen, since we are Cloneable
throw new InternalError(e);
}
}

/**
* Returns an array containing all of the elements in this Vector
* in the correct order.
*
* @since 1.2
*/
public synchronized Object[] toArray() {
return Arrays.copyOf(elementData, elementCount);
}

/**
* Returns an array containing all of the elements in this Vector in the
* correct order; the runtime type of the returned array is that of the
* specified array. If the Vector fits in the specified array, it is
* returned therein. Otherwise, a new array is allocated with the runtime
* type of the specified array and the size of this Vector.
*
* <p>If the Vector fits in the specified array with room to spare
* (i.e., the array has more elements than the Vector),
* the element in the array immediately following the end of the
* Vector is set to null. (This is useful in determining the length
* of the Vector <em>only</em> if the caller knows that the Vector
* does not contain any null elements.)
*
* @param a the array into which the elements of the Vector are to
* be stored, if it is big enough; otherwise, a new array of the
* same runtime type is allocated for this purpose.
* @return an array containing the elements of the Vector
* @throws ArrayStoreException if the runtime type of a is not a supertype
* of the runtime type of every element in this Vector
* @throws NullPointerException if the given array is null
* @since 1.2
*/
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public synchronized <T> T[] toArray(T[] a) {
if (a.length < elementCount)
return (T[]) Arrays.copyOf(elementData, elementCount, a.getClass());

System.arraycopy(elementData, 0, a, 0, elementCount);

if (a.length > elementCount)
a[elementCount] = null;

return a;
}

// Positional Access Operations

@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
E elementData(int index) {
return (E) elementData[index];
}

/**
* Returns the element at the specified position in this Vector.
*
* @param index index of the element to return
* @return object at the specified index
* @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException if the index is out of range
* ({@code index < 0 || index >= size()})
* @since 1.2
*/
public synchronized E get(int index) {
if (index >= elementCount)
throw new ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException(index);

return elementData(index);
}

/**
* Replaces the element at the specified position in this Vector with the
* specified element.
*
* @param index index of the element to replace
* @param element element to be stored at the specified position
* @return the element previously at the specified position
* @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException if the index is out of range
* ({@code index < 0 || index >= size()})
* @since 1.2
*/
public synchronized E set(int index, E element) {
if (index >= elementCount)
throw new ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException(index);

E oldValue = elementData(index);
elementData[index] = element;
return oldValue;
}

/**
* Appends the specified element to the end of this Vector.
*
* @param e element to be appended to this Vector
* @return {@code true} (as specified by {@link Collection#add})
* @since 1.2
*/
public synchronized boolean add(E e) {
modCount++;
ensureCapacityHelper(elementCount + 1);
elementData[elementCount++] = e;
return true;
}

/**
* Removes the first occurrence of the specified element in this Vector
* If the Vector does not contain the element, it is unchanged. More
* formally, removes the element with the lowest index i such that
* {@code (o==null ? get(i)==null : o.equals(get(i)))} (if such
* an element exists).
*
* @param o element to be removed from this Vector, if present
* @return true if the Vector contained the specified element
* @since 1.2
*/
public boolean remove(Object o) {
return removeElement(o);
}

/**
* Inserts the specified element at the specified position in this Vector.
* Shifts the element currently at that position (if any) and any
* subsequent elements to the right (adds one to their indices).
*
* @param index index at which the specified element is to be inserted
* @param element element to be inserted
* @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException if the index is out of range
* ({@code index < 0 || index > size()})
* @since 1.2
*/
public void add(int index, E element) {
insertElementAt(element, index);
}

/**
* Removes the element at the specified position in this Vector.
* Shifts any subsequent elements to the left (subtracts one from their
* indices). Returns the element that was removed from the Vector.
*
* @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException if the index is out of range
* ({@code index < 0 || index >= size()})
* @param index the index of the element to be removed
* @return element that was removed
* @since 1.2
*/
public synchronized E remove(int index) {
modCount++;
if (index >= elementCount)
throw new ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException(index);
E oldValue = elementData(index);

int numMoved = elementCount - index - 1;
if (numMoved > 0)
System.arraycopy(elementData, index+1, elementData, index,
numMoved);
elementData[--elementCount] = null; // Let gc do its work

return oldValue;
}

/**
* Removes all of the elements from this Vector. The Vector will
* be empty after this call returns (unless it throws an exception).
*
* @since 1.2
*/
public void clear() {
removeAllElements();
}

// Bulk Operations

/**
* Returns true if this Vector contains all of the elements in the
* specified Collection.
*
* @param c a collection whose elements will be tested for containment
* in this Vector
* @return true if this Vector contains all of the elements in the
* specified collection
* @throws NullPointerException if the specified collection is null
*/
public synchronized boolean containsAll(Collection<?> c) {
return super.containsAll(c);
}

/**
* Appends all of the elements in the specified Collection to the end of
* this Vector, in the order that they are returned by the specified
* Collection's Iterator. The behavior of this operation is undefined if
* the specified Collection is modified while the operation is in progress.
* (This implies that the behavior of this call is undefined if the
* specified Collection is this Vector, and this Vector is nonempty.)
*
* @param c elements to be inserted into this Vector
* @return {@code true} if this Vector changed as a result of the call
* @throws NullPointerException if the specified collection is null
* @since 1.2
*/
public synchronized boolean addAll(Collection<? extends E> c) {
modCount++;
Object[] a = c.toArray();
int numNew = a.length;
ensureCapacityHelper(elementCount + numNew);
System.arraycopy(a, 0, elementData, elementCount, numNew);
elementCount += numNew;
return numNew != 0;
}

/**
* Removes from this Vector all of its elements that are contained in the
* specified Collection.
*
* @param c a collection of elements to be removed from the Vector
* @return true if this Vector changed as a result of the call
* @throws ClassCastException if the types of one or more elements
* in this vector are incompatible with the specified
* collection
* (<a href="Collection.html#optional-restrictions">optional</a>)
* @throws NullPointerException if this vector contains one or more null
* elements and the specified collection does not support null
* elements
* (<a href="Collection.html#optional-restrictions">optional</a>),
* or if the specified collection is null
* @since 1.2
*/
public synchronized boolean removeAll(Collection<?> c) {
return super.removeAll(c);
}

/**
* Retains only the elements in this Vector that are contained in the
* specified Collection. In other words, removes from this Vector all
* of its elements that are not contained in the specified Collection.
*
* @param c a collection of elements to be retained in this Vector
* (all other elements are removed)
* @return true if this Vector changed as a result of the call
* @throws ClassCastException if the types of one or more elements
* in this vector are incompatible with the specified
* collection
* (<a href="Collection.html#optional-restrictions">optional</a>)
* @throws NullPointerException if this vector contains one or more null
* elements and the specified collection does not support null
* elements
* (<a href="Collection.html#optional-restrictions">optional</a>),
* or if the specified collection is null
* @since 1.2
*/
public synchronized boolean retainAll(Collection<?> c) {
return super.retainAll(c);
}

/**
* Inserts all of the elements in the specified Collection into this
* Vector at the specified position. Shifts the element currently at
* that position (if any) and any subsequent elements to the right
* (increases their indices). The new elements will appear in the Vector
* in the order that they are returned by the specified Collection's
* iterator.
*
* @param index index at which to insert the first element from the
* specified collection
* @param c elements to be inserted into this Vector
* @return {@code true} if this Vector changed as a result of the call
* @throws ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException if the index is out of range
* ({@code index < 0 || index > size()})
* @throws NullPointerException if the specified collection is null
* @since 1.2
*/
public synchronized boolean addAll(int index, Collection<? extends E> c) {
modCount++;
if (index < 0 || index > elementCount)
throw new ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException(index);

Object[] a = c.toArray();
int numNew = a.length;
ensureCapacityHelper(elementCount + numNew);

int numMoved = elementCount - index;
if (numMoved > 0)
System.arraycopy(elementData, index, elementData, index + numNew,
numMoved);

System.arraycopy(a, 0, elementData, index, numNew);
elementCount += numNew;
return numNew != 0;
}

/**
* Compares the specified Object with this Vector for equality. Returns
* true if and only if the specified Object is also a List, both Lists
* have the same size, and all corresponding pairs of elements in the two
* Lists are <em>equal</em>. (Two elements {@code e1} and
* {@code e2} are <em>equal</em> if {@code (e1==null ? e2==null :
* e1.equals(e2))}.) In other words, two Lists are defined to be
* equal if they contain the same elements in the same order.
*
* @param o the Object to be compared for equality with this Vector
* @return true if the specified Object is equal to this Vector
*/
public synchronized boolean equals(Object o) {
return super.equals(o);
}

/**
* Returns the hash code value for this Vector.
*/
public synchronized int hashCode() {
return super.hashCode();
}

/**
* Returns a string representation of this Vector, containing
* the String representation of each element.
*/
public synchronized String toString() {
return super.toString();
}

/**
* Returns a view of the portion of this List between fromIndex,
* inclusive, and toIndex, exclusive. (If fromIndex and toIndex are
* equal, the returned List is empty.) The returned List is backed by this
* List, so changes in the returned List are reflected in this List, and
* vice-versa. The returned List supports all of the optional List
* operations supported by this List.
*
* <p>This method eliminates the need for explicit range operations (of
* the sort that commonly exist for arrays). Any operation that expects
* a List can be used as a range operation by operating on a subList view
* instead of a whole List. For example, the following idiom
* removes a range of elements from a List:
* <pre>
* list.subList(from, to).clear();
* </pre>
* Similar idioms may be constructed for indexOf and lastIndexOf,
* and all of the algorithms in the Collections class can be applied to
* a subList.
*
* <p>The semantics of the List returned by this method become undefined if
* the backing list (i.e., this List) is <i>structurally modified</i> in
* any way other than via the returned List. (Structural modifications are
* those that change the size of the List, or otherwise perturb it in such
* a fashion that iterations in progress may yield incorrect results.)
*
* @param fromIndex low endpoint (inclusive) of the subList
* @param toIndex high endpoint (exclusive) of the subList
* @return a view of the specified range within this List
* @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException if an endpoint index value is out of range
* {@code (fromIndex < 0 || toIndex > size)}
* @throws IllegalArgumentException if the endpoint indices are out of order
* {@code (fromIndex > toIndex)}
*/
public synchronized List<E> subList(int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
return Collections.synchronizedList(super.subList(fromIndex, toIndex),
this);
}

/**
* Removes from this list all of the elements whose index is between
* {@code fromIndex}, inclusive, and {@code toIndex}, exclusive.
* Shifts any succeeding elements to the left (reduces their index).
* This call shortens the list by {@code (toIndex - fromIndex)} elements.
* (If {@code toIndex==fromIndex}, this operation has no effect.)
*/
protected synchronized void removeRange(int fromIndex, int toIndex) {
modCount++;
int numMoved = elementCount - toIndex;
System.arraycopy(elementData, toIndex, elementData, fromIndex,
numMoved);

// Let gc do its work
int newElementCount = elementCount - (toIndex-fromIndex);
while (elementCount != newElementCount)
elementData[--elementCount] = null;
}

/**
* Save the state of the {@code Vector} instance to a stream (that
* is, serialize it).
* This method performs synchronization to ensure the consistency
* of the serialized data.
*/
private void writeObject(java.io.ObjectOutputStream s)
throws java.io.IOException {
final java.io.ObjectOutputStream.PutField fields = s.putFields();
final Object[] data;
synchronized (this) {
fields.put("capacityIncrement", capacityIncrement);
fields.put("elementCount", elementCount);
data = elementData.clone();
}
fields.put("elementData", data);
s.writeFields();
}

/**
* Returns a list iterator over the elements in this list (in proper
* sequence), starting at the specified position in the list.
* The specified index indicates the first element that would be
* returned by an initial call to {@link ListIterator#next next}.
* An initial call to {@link ListIterator#previous previous} would
* return the element with the specified index minus one.
*
* <p>The returned list iterator is <a href="#fail-fast"><i>fail-fast</i></a>.
*
* @throws IndexOutOfBoundsException {@inheritDoc}
*/
public synchronized ListIterator<E> listIterator(int index) {
if (index < 0 || index > elementCount)
throw new IndexOutOfBoundsException("Index: "+index);
return new ListItr(index);
}

/**
* Returns a list iterator over the elements in this list (in proper
* sequence).
*
* <p>The returned list iterator is <a href="#fail-fast"><i>fail-fast</i></a>.
*
* @see #listIterator(int)
*/
public synchronized ListIterator<E> listIterator() {
return new ListItr(0);
}

/**
* Returns an iterator over the elements in this list in proper sequence.
*
* <p>The returned iterator is <a href="#fail-fast"><i>fail-fast</i></a>.
*
* @return an iterator over the elements in this list in proper sequence
*/
public synchronized Iterator<E> iterator() {
return new Itr();
}

/**
* An optimized version of AbstractList.Itr
*/
private class Itr implements Iterator<E> {
int cursor; // index of next element to return
int lastRet = -1; // index of last element returned; -1 if no such
int expectedModCount = modCount;

public boolean hasNext() {
// Racy but within spec, since modifications are checked
// within or after synchronization in next/previous
return cursor != elementCount;
}

public E next() {
synchronized (Vector.this) {
checkForComodification();
int i = cursor;
if (i >= elementCount)
throw new NoSuchElementException();
cursor = i + 1;
return elementData(lastRet = i);
}
}

public void remove() {
if (lastRet == -1)
throw new IllegalStateException();
synchronized (Vector.this) {
checkForComodification();
Vector.this.remove(lastRet);
expectedModCount = modCount;
}
cursor = lastRet;
lastRet = -1;
}

@Override
public void forEachRemaining(Consumer<? super E> action) {
Objects.requireNonNull(action);
synchronized (Vector.this) {
final int size = elementCount;
int i = cursor;
if (i >= size) {
return;
}
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
final E[] elementData = (E[]) Vector.this.elementData;
if (i >= elementData.length) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
while (i != size && modCount == expectedModCount) {
action.accept(elementData[i++]);
}
// update once at end of iteration to reduce heap write traffic
cursor = i;
lastRet = i - 1;
checkForComodification();
}
}

final void checkForComodification() {
if (modCount != expectedModCount)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}

/**
* An optimized version of AbstractList.ListItr
*/
final class ListItr extends Itr implements ListIterator<E> {
ListItr(int index) {
super();
cursor = index;
}

public boolean hasPrevious() {
return cursor != 0;
}

public int nextIndex() {
return cursor;
}

public int previousIndex() {
return cursor - 1;
}

public E previous() {
synchronized (Vector.this) {
checkForComodification();
int i = cursor - 1;
if (i < 0)
throw new NoSuchElementException();
cursor = i;
return elementData(lastRet = i);
}
}

public void set(E e) {
if (lastRet == -1)
throw new IllegalStateException();
synchronized (Vector.this) {
checkForComodification();
Vector.this.set(lastRet, e);
}
}

public void add(E e) {
int i = cursor;
synchronized (Vector.this) {
checkForComodification();
Vector.this.add(i, e);
expectedModCount = modCount;
}
cursor = i + 1;
lastRet = -1;
}
}

@Override
public synchronized void forEach(Consumer<? super E> action) {
Objects.requireNonNull(action);
final int expectedModCount = modCount;
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
final E[] elementData = (E[]) this.elementData;
final int elementCount = this.elementCount;
for (int i=0; modCount == expectedModCount && i < elementCount; i++) {
action.accept(elementData[i]);
}
if (modCount != expectedModCount) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
}

@Override
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public synchronized boolean removeIf(Predicate<? super E> filter) {
Objects.requireNonNull(filter);
// figure out which elements are to be removed
// any exception thrown from the filter predicate at this stage
// will leave the collection unmodified
int removeCount = 0;
final int size = elementCount;
final BitSet removeSet = new BitSet(size);
final int expectedModCount = modCount;
for (int i=0; modCount == expectedModCount && i < size; i++) {
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
final E element = (E) elementData[i];
if (filter.test(element)) {
removeSet.set(i);
removeCount++;
}
}
if (modCount != expectedModCount) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}

// shift surviving elements left over the spaces left by removed elements
final boolean anyToRemove = removeCount > 0;
if (anyToRemove) {
final int newSize = size - removeCount;
for (int i=0, j=0; (i < size) && (j < newSize); i++, j++) {
i = removeSet.nextClearBit(i);
elementData[j] = elementData[i];
}
for (int k=newSize; k < size; k++) {
elementData[k] = null; // Let gc do its work
}
elementCount = newSize;
if (modCount != expectedModCount) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
modCount++;
}

return anyToRemove;
}

@Override
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public synchronized void replaceAll(UnaryOperator<E> operator) {
Objects.requireNonNull(operator);
final int expectedModCount = modCount;
final int size = elementCount;
for (int i=0; modCount == expectedModCount && i < size; i++) {
elementData[i] = operator.apply((E) elementData[i]);
}
if (modCount != expectedModCount) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
modCount++;
}

@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
@Override
public synchronized void sort(Comparator<? super E> c) {
final int expectedModCount = modCount;
Arrays.sort((E[]) elementData, 0, elementCount, c);
if (modCount != expectedModCount) {
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}
modCount++;
}

/**
* Creates a <em><a href="Spliterator.html#binding">late-binding</a></em>
* and <em>fail-fast</em> {@link Spliterator} over the elements in this
* list.
*
* <p>The {@code Spliterator} reports {@link Spliterator#SIZED},
* {@link Spliterator#SUBSIZED}, and {@link Spliterator#ORDERED}.
* Overriding implementations should document the reporting of additional
* characteristic values.
*
* @return a {@code Spliterator} over the elements in this list
* @since 1.8
*/
@Override
public Spliterator<E> spliterator() {
return new VectorSpliterator<>(this, null, 0, -1, 0);
}

/** Similar to ArrayList Spliterator */
static final class VectorSpliterator<E> implements Spliterator<E> {
private final Vector<E> list;
private Object[] array;
private int index; // current index, modified on advance/split
private int fence; // -1 until used; then one past last index
private int expectedModCount; // initialized when fence set

/** Create new spliterator covering the given range */
VectorSpliterator(Vector<E> list, Object[] array, int origin, int fence,
int expectedModCount) {
this.list = list;
this.array = array;
this.index = origin;
this.fence = fence;
this.expectedModCount = expectedModCount;
}

private int getFence() { // initialize on first use
int hi;
if ((hi = fence) < 0) {
synchronized(list) {
array = list.elementData;
expectedModCount = list.modCount;
hi = fence = list.elementCount;
}
}
return hi;
}

public Spliterator<E> trySplit() {
int hi = getFence(), lo = index, mid = (lo + hi) >>> 1;
return (lo >= mid) ? null :
new VectorSpliterator<E>(list, array, lo, index = mid,
expectedModCount);
}

@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public boolean tryAdvance(Consumer<? super E> action) {
int i;
if (action == null)
throw new NullPointerException();
if (getFence() > (i = index)) {
index = i + 1;
action.accept((E)array[i]);
if (list.modCount != expectedModCount)
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
return true;
}
return false;
}

@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
public void forEachRemaining(Consumer<? super E> action) {
int i, hi; // hoist accesses and checks from loop
Vector<E> lst; Object[] a;
if (action == null)
throw new NullPointerException();
if ((lst = list) != null) {
if ((hi = fence) < 0) {
synchronized(lst) {
expectedModCount = lst.modCount;
a = array = lst.elementData;
hi = fence = lst.elementCount;
}
}
else
a = array;
if (a != null && (i = index) >= 0 && (index = hi) <= a.length) {
while (i < hi)
action.accept((E) a[i++]);
if (lst.modCount == expectedModCount)
return;
}
}
throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
}

public long estimateSize() {
return (long) (getFence() - index);
}

public int characteristics() {
return Spliterator.ORDERED | Spliterator.SIZED | Spliterator.SUBSIZED;
}
}
}

Vector的源码实现总体与ArrayList类似,关于Vector的源码,给出如下几点总结:
1、Vector有四个不同的构造方法。无参构造方法的容量为默认值10,仅包含容量的构造方法则将容量增长量(从源码中可以看出容量增长量的作用,第二点也会对容量增长量详细说)明置为0。

2、注意扩充容量的方法ensureCapacityHelper。与ArrayList相同,Vector在每次增加元素(可能是1个,也可能是一组)时,都要调用该方法来确保足够的容量。当容量不足以容纳当前的元素个数时,就先看构造方法中传入的容量增长量参数CapacityIncrement是否为0,如果不为0,就设置新的容量为就容量加上容量增长量,如果为0,就设置新的容量为旧的容量的2倍,如果设置后的新容量还不够,则直接新容量设置为传入的参数(也就是所需的容量),而后同样用Arrays.copyof()方法将元素拷贝到新的数组。

3、很多方法都加入了synchronized同步语句,来保证线程安全。
4、同样在查找给定元素索引值等的方法中,源码都将该元素的值分为null和不为null两种情况处理,Vector中也允许元素为null。

5、其他很多地方都与ArrayList实现大同小异,Vector现在已经基本不再使用。

转自:http://blog.csdn.net/ns_code/article/details/35568011 http://blog.csdn.net/ns_code/article/details/35787253 http://blog.csdn.net/ns_code/article/details/35793865